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Drought effects on mineral composition of the leaves and seeds of Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus

N.V. TETYANNIKOV, S.M. MOTYLEVA, М.S. GINS, N.V. КOZAK, D.V. PANISCHEVA, M.E. MERTVISCHEVA, L.F. KАBASHNIKOVA, I.N. DOMANSKAYA, and Т.S. PILIPOVICH

In global climate change, drought stress is one of the environmental restraining factors that can significantly influence the growth and development of crop plants. Drought stress conditions can also cause undesirable changes in plant physiological and metabolic processes. The influence of soil drought on the mineral composition of leaves and seeds of two species of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.) with С4-type of photosynthesis was studied through energy dispersive spectrometry (ESD). The recent investigations were carried out during the years 20202022 at the Department of Genofonde and Bioresources of Plants, Federal Scientific Center for Horticulture, Moscow, Russia. The research results showed the leaves of both amaranth with major elements, i.e., K (11.23–15.33), Ca (5.15–7.61), P (3.91–3.92), Mg (2.81–3.36), and Cl (1.86–2.29), whereas, relatively lower values were recorded for Fe (0.05–0.48), and Na (0.07–0.11) mass% respectively. Regarding amaranth plants seed composition, the major elements were K (13.86–13.97), P (7.02–9.76), Mg (3.78–5.64), Ca (3.31–4.78), Cl (2.81–5.30), and Mo (2.80–2.86) mass% respectively. In the species, A. tricolor, a strong correlation was observed between the elements, i.e., S-Cu, Mg-Si, Na-Cu, Na-S, Na-Ca, Na-Si, and Si-S in leaves, while in seeds, these were between CaCu, Mg-Cl, Si-Mn, Ca-Mo, and Cl-Mn. In the other species of amaranth, A. cruentus, the elements viz., Mg-S, Mg-Mo, S-Mo, Mg-Cl, S-Cl, Cl-Mo, Cl-P, P-S, Si-Cl, Ca-Mo, S-Ca, Mg-Ca, Mg-P, P-Mo, and Mg-Si in leaves, while Ni-Cu, Mg-P, Si-P, and Si-Cl in seeds also showed strong relationship. Effects of drought led to a weakening of these ties and the formation of new ones. The accumulation of mineral elements in the leaves of amaranth plants varies from species to species under drought conditions, and A. tricolor cv. Valentina was found most resistant to drought conditions.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Mineral composition, leaves, seeds, drought stress, EDS analysis, Amaranthus tricolor L., Amaranthus cruentus L.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.18

Effect of planting and bud placement position on agronomical and physiological traits of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

N. MANGRIO, N. MARI, G.S. MANGRIO, Z.A. SOOMRO, A.A. SIMAIR, and B. KUMAR

SUMMARY

Different planting techniques influence the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugarcane. This study focused on the hypothesis that altering sett spacing and bud placement position significantly improves sugarcane yield and quality. The experiment was conducted during the periods, 2016–2017 and 2017–2018, under field conditions at the Sugarcane Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan. The sugarcane variety, PSTJ-41, was used for the study in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Spacing between setts included S1 = end to end, S2 = 15 cm, S3 = 22 cm, and S4 = 30 cm. Bud placement position consisted of B1= buds up and down, and B2 = buds faced to ridge. Analysis revealed that sett spacings and bud placement positions significantly (P<0.05) affected almost all the studied agronomical, physiological, and qualitative sugarcane traits. Enhanced sugarcane sprouting (%), crop growth rate (gm-2day-1), leaf area index, cane length (cm), internodes cane-1, millable canes (000 ha-1), Brix (%), commercial cane sugar (CCS %), and cane yield (t ha-1) were observed with setts plantation of a distance at 30 cm apart. In the case of bud position, B2 showed maximum growth, yield, and best quality attributes. The highest and desirable mean values of the various parameters were documented in the interaction of 30 cm sett spacings × buds faced to ridges regarding interactive effects.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Sugarcane, sett spacing, bud placement position, growth, millable canes, cane yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.19

Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in different agrosystems of Southeast Kazakhstan

R.U. SAIMOVA, K.I. BATYROVA, N.A. BEKENOVA, E. KAUYNBAEVA, and B.K. ESIMOV

SUMMARY

The recent study on ground beetles (Carabidae) was carried out in 2020 over five different agroecosystems, i.e., alfalfa, barley, corn, soybean, and triticale, at the Kaskelen Experimental Farm, Southeast Kazakhstan. Overall, 38 species of ground beetles related to 24 genera were identified. From these, the Harpаlus rufipes, Poecilus cupreus, and P. versicolor were the dominant ones in the different agroecosystems. Most of the ground beetles are general predators and useful as entomophages. These beetles and their larvae exterminate various agricultural pests. However, the presence of P. versicolorand P. cupreus suggests a threat to the crops. Those species have a mixed diet and are also known as economically significant pests, of which the most famous is the ground beetle Zabrus morio. Different agroecosystems have shown different distributions of ground beetle species, indicating the influence of cultivated crops on the formation of the ground beetle community. Findings from the study could provide the basis for designing crop management programs after promoting the presence of ground beetles that can contribute to the prevention and control of agricultural pests.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Ground beetles diversity, species distribution, crop management, pests, agro-ecosystems 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.21

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Genetic and physiological aspects of silique shattering in rapeseed and mustard

H.S.B. MUSTAFA, T. MAHMOOD, H. BASHIR, E. HASAN, A.M. DIN, S. HABIB, M. ALTAF, R. QAMAR, M. GHIAS, M.R. BASHIR, M. ANWAR, S.A. ZAFAR, I. AHMAD, M.U. YAQOOB, F. RASHID, G.A. MAND, A. NAWAZ, and J. SALIM

SUMMARY

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L.) are two important oilseed crops grown worldwide for edible oil and meal production, as well as, a source of renewable energy. Silique shattering at the maturity stage is the major cause of seed yield reduction in brassica. Losses in seed yield are more in developing countries due to poor management and the non-availability of combine harvesters. Silique shattering resistance is essential for achieving good seed yield especially in Brassica napus. The silique on plants of rapeseed and mustard mature in different phases due to indeterminate growth habit, which is also a reason for shattering losses. Silique shattering is linked with the creation of a dehiscence zone in a brassica pod. When the siliqua wall loses its hydration, along the length of the siliqua, a few cell layers separate the replum from the pericarp tip of the two silique valves. In the dehiscence zone, it involves the collapse of cell walls and cell separation, as well as, the destruction of the middle lamella and enhanced hydrolytic enzyme activity. To avoid seed yield losses, resistance against silique shattering is essential in rapeseed and mustard cultivars. There are multiple QTLs discovered that control variance in silique shattering. Previous studies validated the shattering process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was controlled by eight different genes. However, their role in controlling silique shattering in rapeseed and mustard is unknown. Modern tools of mutation breeding and genetic engineering, especially CRISPR/Cas9 technology, can be utilized to identify the genetic source for shattering resistance in rapeseed and mustard, which will be helpful for the development of silique-shattering resistant cultivars under changing climatic regime.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Brassica, breeding tools, silique shattering, genetic resistance, seed yield 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.1

Combining ability and heterotic studies in aromatic rice through line by tester analysis

M.Z. ISLAM, M.A.A. GALIB, M.M. AKAND, L.F. LIPI, A. AKTER, M.Q.I. MATIN, and N.A. IVY

SUMMARY

Estimating combining ability helps to evaluate genotypes and determine the nature and degree of gene activities. This study aimed to identify the best parental genotypes and superior hybrids of aromatic rice using a line × tester mating design. Five CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility) lines and four testers of local and exotic origins of aromatic rice were studied in this experiment. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed genetic variability among the studied CMS and restorer lines. The analysis of variance showed that parental lines, testers, and their line by testers populations had enough genetic variability. Five out of 20 hybrids found positive heterosis for grain yield, and the hybrid BRRI1A × BUdhan2R had the maximum heterosis. In terms of the agronomic traits evaluated, specific combining ability (SCA) effects were higher than general combining ability (GCA) effects. Genotypes IR58025A, BRRI1A, and BUdhan2R were identified as superior parents based on their performances for yield traits and GCA effects in the desired direction. IR58025A × BUdhan2R and BRRI1A × BUdhan2R were chosen as promising genotypes due to their highest grain yield, heterosis, and desirable SCA. Low ratios of σ2gca/σ2sca and (σ2D/σ2A)1/2, and low to high estimations of narrow-sense heritability indicated that both additive and non-additive gene effects predominated in the inheritance of the studied traits. Pearson’s correlation showed that among the 10 studied traits, grain yield plant-1 was highly significant and positively correlated with flag leaf area, spikelet fertility (%), and filled grains panicle-1, as well as, significant and negatively correlated with days to flowering and days to maturity. Superior parental genotypes and hybrids that have been identified can be employed as donDator parents to improve the grain yield in aromatic rice.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Aromatic rice, heterosis, line by tester analysis, GCA and SCA, cluster analysis, correlation

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.2

Characterization of bread wheat segregating populations under optimum irrigation and water stress conditions

D.A. SWELAM, A.H. SALEM, M.A. HASSAN, and M.M.A. ALI2

Water scarcity is currently threatening almost every country in the arid regions. Using advanced generations, breeding can help in the development of improved bread wheat genotypes for adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. The pedigree selection was practiced on two bread wheat crosses (Sids 12 × Line 44) and (Line 20 × Sakha 93) during two seasons (2017−2018 and 2018–2019) under full irrigation (optimal conditions) and limited irrigation (drought-stressed) conditions at Kafer El-Hamam Agriculture Station, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. The results indicated significant differences in two crosses of F2 and F3 families for all the studied traits under optimal irrigation and water stress. The estimates of phenotypic coefficients of variability (PCV) were slightly higher than those of genotypic coefficients of variability (GCV) for all the traits in two crosses of both water regimes. Broad-sense heritability (h2 Bs) estimates, accompanied with high magnitudes of the genetic advance (GA), were higher under optimal irrigation than water stress in F2 and F3 generations of two crosses. A positive correlation was recorded between spikes per plant and grain yield in both water treatments of two crosses. A positive correlation (r) was revealed between offsprings (F3) and their parents (F2) in yield and its components under optimal irrigation and water stress conditions. Hence, the hybridization followed by selection under optimal and drought stress conditions have been a demand to accelerate the genetic gain of wheat grain yield.

 

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Date Published: June 2022

Keywords: Wheat, selection parameters, heritability, genetic advance, water stress

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.6

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In vitro mutagenesis and propagation of Paulownia tomentosa (Thum) for salt tolerance

M.E.A.E. AHMED, T.M. ABD ELAZIEM, and A.A. NOWER

SUMMARY

The study aimed to refine a protocol for micropropagation and to develop the plant’s ability to withstand salinity by the use of physical and chemical mutations, so that it can be cultivated in new lands that are not suitable for other crops. Shoot tips and stem segments of Paulownia tomentosa were firstly sterilized and cultured on different media types containing benzyl amino purine (BAP) at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/l to choose the best combination for explant growth and proliferation. To examine the plant’s ability to withstand salinity, Paulownia tomentosa shoots were first irradiated with the doses of gamma rays at 0.0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 Gray (Gy) and secondly, cultured on a WPM medium containing sodium azide “NaN3” at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8. and 1.0 mM for 5 min. Both irradiated and NaN3-treated shoots were cultured on different levels of NaCl. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) technique was used to detect variations caused by gamma rays and NaN3. Results showed that at 120 Gy of gamma-ray, one fragment with primer UBC824 vanished and one fragment with primer 17898B at 150 Gy appeared. In comparison, one fragment with primer either UBC873 or UBC867 at 1.0 mM and 0.8 mM of NaN3, respectively, can be considered a positive marker of Paulownia salt tolerance. Treated shoots gave the greatest number of roots/shoot (6.0) on WPM half strength with NAA at 2.0 mg/l. Increasing gamma doses or NaN3 concentrations decreased survival rate. Variation created by mutation provides the raw material for natural selection and is a driving force in evolution. Keywords: Gamma-ray, mutagenesis, NaN3, Paulownia tomentosa, proliferation, salt tolerance, tissue culture Key findings: At 120 Gy of gamma-ray, one fragment with primer UBC824 vanished and one fragment with primer 17898B at 150 Gy appeared. In comparison, one fragment with primer either UBC873 or UBC867 at 1.0 mM and 0.8 mM of NaN3, respectively, and one fragment with primer UBC828 at 0.8 mM of NaN3 appeared, which can be considered as a positive marker of Paulownia linked to salt tolerance.

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Date Published: June 2022

Keywords: Gamma-ray, mutagenesis, NaN3, Paulownia tomentosa, proliferation, salt tolerance, tissue culture 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.8

Phenotypic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L. Walp) genotypes assessed with quantitative and qualitative characters

Onwubiko NC

Phenotypic variation among six Nigerian cowpea genotypes was established on the basis of quantitative and qualitative characters. Except for leaf area and harvest index, quantitative characters showed significant differences. Stem and pod color and leaf and seed color showed variation among genotypes. Seed size had the least variation. Quantitative and qualitative characters were useful for assessing morphological variability and discriminating cowpea accessions.

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Onwubiko NC (2020). Phenotypic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L. Walp) genotypes assessed with quantitative and qualitative characters. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):191–201.

Genetic Diversity of Cucumis and Mukia (Cucurbitaceae) based on ISSR markers

Pratami MP, Chikmawati T, Rugayah

Published: June 2020

A total of 53 Cucumis cultivars and 43 Mukia accessions were verified through genetic diversity analysis based on inter simple sequence repeat markers. The amplification of Cucumis and Mukia DNA by using 20 ISSR primers produced 246 bands and 245 polymorphic bands. Mukia javanica (Miq.) C. Jeffrey (0.101) showed the highest diversity, whereas Mukia maderaspatana L. (0.037) showed the lowest diversity. Principal component analysis grouped Cucumis and Mukia accessions into four groups.

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Pratami MP, Chikmawati T, Rugayah (2020) Genetic diversity of Cucumis and Mukia (Cucurbitaceae) based on ISSR markers. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):127–143.

Molecular phylogeny of Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium [Jack] Ridl.) inferred from trnL-F intergenic spacer sequences

FITMAWATI, DESTI, E. JULIANTARI, D. NOVELA, and H. KAPLI

SUMMARY

Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium [Jack] Ridl.) has a stronger wood quality and is resistant to tidal deformations. For centuries, the local people are traditionally using nibung for different purposes. However, its utilization is higher than its cultivation, causing a decrease in supply every year. Taxonomic data based on molecular markers are urgently needed in the nibung germplasm. We need to study their molecular characters to provide basic data for genetic diversity and conservation study purposes. The present study aims to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of seven accessions of nibung in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, based on molecular characters and to clarify the relationship among closely related infra-specific categories. The seven accessions of nibung were grouped by types of habitats i.e., lowland and highland areas. Accessions collected from the highland areas (Bukit Suligi) were very different from those collected from the lowland areas based on their genetic and evolutionary data. Based on Neighbor-Joining (NJ) analysis, it is estimated that the accession O. tigillarium from Bukit Suligi was more advanced than another accession. The present study has been able to compare more primitive and advanced accessions based on genetic distance. The studies also confirmed that the more advanced species are highly capable to survive in their in situ environment. Such type of genetic variability is very important for breeding and conservation studies and can be used in future generations of palm.

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Keywords: DNA barcoding, trnL-F intergenic spacer, nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium), Riau – Indonesia

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.16