Journal

Category Archive Journal

Genotype by environment interaction analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield under rainfed conditions in Zambia

Tembo B

SUMMARY

Understanding genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is important for crop improvement because it aids in the recommendation of cultivars and the identification of appropriate production environments. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of GEI for the grain yield of wheat grown under rain-fed conditions in Zambia by using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The study was conducted in 2015/16 at Mutanda Research Station, Mt. Makulu Research Station and Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART) in Chibombo. During2016/17, the experiment was performed at Mpongwe, Mt. Makulu Research Station and GART Chibombo, Zambia. Fifty-five rain-fed wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield in a 5 × 11 alpha lattice design with two replications. Results revealed the presence of significant variation in yield across genotypes, environments, and GEI indicating the differential performance of genotypes across environments. The variance due to the effect of environments was higher than the variances due to genotypes and GEI. The variances ascribed to environments, genotypes, and GEI accounted for 45.79%, 12.96%, and 22.56% of the total variation, respectively. These results indicated that in rain-fed wheat genotypes under study, grain yield was more controlled by the environment than by genetics. AMMI biplot analysis demonstrated that E2 was the main contributor to the GEI given that it was located farthest from the origin. Furthermore, E2 was unstable yet recorded the highest yield. Genotype G47 contributed highly to the GEI sum of squares considering that it was also located far from the origin. Genotypes G12 and G18 were relatively stable because they were situated close to the origin. Their position indicated that they had minimal interaction with the environment. Genotype 47 was the highest-yielding genotype but was unstable, whereas G34 was the lowest-yielding genotype and was unstable.

Download article

Keywords: Genotype–environment interaction, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis, genetics, stability, Triticum aestivum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.5

Biochemical and cytological features of onion bulbs and leaves collected from various ecogeographical origins

Nemtinov VI, Kostanchuk YN, Pashtetskiy VS, Motyleva SM, Bokhan AI, Caruso G, Katskaya AG, Timasheva LA, Pekhova OA


SUMMARY

Allium cepa L. genotypes with different ecogeographical origins revealed the highest nutritional values when grown in Crimea, Russia. However, their environmental adaptation should be further investigated. This research was performed during 2016–17 to evaluate the qualitative, antioxidant, and mineral composition characteristics of 15 onion genotypes, of which four originated from the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution, Research Institute of Agriculture, Crimea, Russia. Sweet onion genotypes exhibited high ascorbic acid contents of 11.8–27.3 mg/100 g. However, some genotypes had a narrow range of ascorbic acid content (11.8–21.1 mg/100 g) due to their different ecogeographical origins and proved to be appropriate for industrial processing because of their spicy taste. Intensely colored bulbs had a high content of polyphenols (anthocyanins), which are known to have a positive influence on human health. Electronic microscopic assays revealed the morphological characteristics of A. cepa L. genotype leaves and demonstrated the differences in epidermal structure and adaptability potential. The 12 main mineral macro- and microelements with the highest contents in onion leaves were analyzed. The hyperaccumulator genotype with the highest leaf macro- and microelement content could be used to address mineral element deficiencies in humans. In onion genotype leaves, the contents of the mineral elements followed the order of Zn > Fe > Si > Na > Р > Cl > Mo > Mg > S > Ca > Cu > K. The biochemical analysis of 13 onion cultivars showed that the majority exceeded the standard values of dry matter and sugars (mono- and disaccharides) by 13% and 46%, 11% and 48%, and 36% and 150%. In onion genotypes, leaf surface microstructure was specific, and the largest stomata corresponded to the most productive cultivars.

Download the article

Date Published: December 2021

Keywords: Onion, bulb (Allium cepa L.), ascorbic acid, leaves, electronic microscopy scanning, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, mineral elements

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.1

Effect of silicon on maize under water deficit conditions at flowering stage

M.M.M. ATTA, R.M. ABD-EL-SALAM, H.M. ABDEL-LATTIF, and M.A. GARANG

SUMMARY

The use of silicon is an option for reducing the adverse effects of water deficit conditions. The recent study took place at the Agricultural Research and Experiment Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (30°02′ N and 31°13′ E, with an altitude of 30 m) in two seasons of 2019 and 2020. The study’s chief objective aimed to investigate the effect of water deficit at flowering on maize and its relation to silicon spraying. The study included two water treatments: non-stress (NS) and water stress (WS); three silicon treatments: (0, 3, and 6 mM L-1); and five single-cross hybrids. A split-split plot design in a randomized complete block arrangement proceeded with three replications. Water deficit caused a significant reduction in grain yield ha-1 by 7.41%. Yield reduction resulted from substantial reductions in kernels row-1 (8.52%), 100-kernel weight (7.16%), carbohydrate % (4.79%), and carbohydrate yield ha-1 (11.88%). Silicon treatments caused notable increases in carbohydrate % by 0.57% and 0.71% and oil % by 7.69% and 19.49% due to the concentrations of 3 and 6 mM L-1 of sodium silicate, respectively. In addition, significant increases in kernels row-1 (3.01%), 100-kernel weight (3.12%), and oil yield ha-1 (18.12%) occurred under the concentration of 6 mM L-1. The most interesting observation in the study showed the noteworthy increase in oil yield/ha for all studied hybrids, ranging from 13.33% (SC-3444) to 29.41% (SC-3433). It resulted from the application of the concentration of 6 mM L-1. The hybrids SC-30N11, SC-3433, and SC-3444 proved the best hybrids, displaying tolerance to water.

Keywords: Maize (Zea mays L.), water stress, silicon, yield, carbohydrate, protein, oil, stress-tolerance index

Key findings: The water deficit condition at the flowering stage caused a significant reduction in yield and its components in maize. The silicon treatment 6 mM L-1 concentration notably enhanced the grain and oil yields and carbohydrates.

Download this article

Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.25

Phosphate fertilizer and nano-magnesium fertilization effects on gene expression, growth, and yield traits of datura (Datura stramonium L.)

S.K. AL-TAMIMI and A.N. FARHOOD

SUMMARY

A study on the effects of phosphate fertilization and nano-magnesium application on several genes that control alkaloid synthesis, growth, and yield traits in Datura (Datura stramonium L.) underwent a field experiment in 2021 at the College of Agriculture, the University of Kerbala, Iraq. Using a randomized complete block design, the experiment had two factors with three replications. The first factor used phosphate (P) fertilizer, i.e., 0, 25, 50, and 75 kg P ha-1, while the second factor included a nano-magnesium application by spraying with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg Mg L-1. The results showed that adding 50 and 75 kg P ha-1 caused a decline in the concentration of atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine in Datura leaves (22.77, 81.02, and 68.90 mg g-1) and seeds (40.93, 65.69 and 99.79 mg g-1), respectively. Sequentially, 25 and 50 kg P ha-1 generated the most yields of alkaloids in Datura leaves, with an average of 149.10 and 149.12 kg P ha-1. Nano-magnesium application at the concentration of 180 mg Mg L-1 caused a significant decrease in the concentration of atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine in seeds and leaves, i.e., with average values in leaves (29.50, 90.25, and 71.25 mg g-1) and seeds (46.25, 82.49 and 121.320 mg g-1), respectively. However, nano-magnesium concentrations of 0 and 120 mg Mg L-1 gave the highest yield of alkaloids in the leaves, with average values of 152.30 and 152.81 kg ha-1. The nano-magnesium concentration of 120 mg Mg L-1 contributed the largest yield of alkaloids in seeds, with an average of 78.65 kg ha-1. The results also showed phosphorus addition significantly decreased the PMT, TR1, and H6H gene expressions, whereas nano-magnesium application only reduced the H6H gene expression. High quantities of fertilizers phosphorus and nano-magnesium boost Datura’s vegetative growth and production but lowered the alkaloid yield, thus recommending a balanced proportion.

Keywords: Datura stramonium L., genes PMT, TR1, H6H, gene expression, growth and yield traits, atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine

Key findings: Spraying nano-magnesium achieved the highest yield of alkaloids from seeds at a low concentration (60 mg Mg L-1), whereas the alkaloids yielded the most from the leaves of Datura (D. stramonium L.) when no spraying of nano-magnesium occurred and when sprayed with concentrations of 0 and 120 mg Mg L-1. The best yield of alkaloids from Datura leaves or seeds resulted at low levels of phosphorus (25 kg P ha-1).

Download this article

Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.24

Humic substances and the mechanism of their influence on the production of higher green plants

A.I. POPOV, V.N. ZELENKOV , M.V. MARKOV, O.T. ZHILKIBAYEV, O.V. ROMANOV, E.V. SAZANOVA, G.D. KHOLOSTOV, K.I. TSIVKA, E.P. SHALUNOVA, J.V. SIMONOVA, and SONG GE

SUMMARY

The latest research proposed a new point of view about the material composition of so-called ‘humic substances,’ isolated from natural objects (soils, peats, sapropels, and composts) by alkaline solutions, and presented the conceptual model of direct influence of ‘humic substances’ on biochemical and biophysical processes into plants. ‘Humic substances’ are essentially black liquor, i.e., a product artificially obtained because of the alkaline hydrolysis of organic material from natural objects. Black liquor consists of a complex mixture of a variety of organic compounds. According to the proposed model, the biological activity of black liquor connects with accelerating the circulation of nutrients within plants, increasing the permeability of cell membranes, exhibiting de-toxicological properties, optimizing the ratio of organic and mineral anions in plants, and using some HS components as organic nutrients, inducing gene expression. Therefore, humic substances solutions have multifaceted effects on green vascular plants due to their direct influence on biochemical and biophysical processes.

Keywords: Humic substances, black liquor, alkaline hydrolysis, higher green plants, plant production process, colloidal systems of natural polymers, organo-mineral compounds, plant organic nutrients

Key findings: ‘Humic substances’ are the same as black liquor, artificially produced from the alkaline hydrolysis of organic material from natural objects. Black liquor composes a complex mixture of a variety of organic compounds. Hence, ‘humic substances’ solutions exhibit multifaceted effects on green vascular plants due to their direct influence on biochemical and biophysical processes.

Download this article

Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.21

Comparative analysis of carbohydrate metabolites in amaranth leaves of different age

E.M. GINS, S.M. MOTYLEVA, V.K. GINS, I.M. KULIKOV, and M.S. GINS

SUMMARY

The recent study aimed to investigate the composition of monosaccharides and their derivatives in the leaves of vegetable species Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. ‘Valentina’ of different ages, as well as, their vital role in enhancing the adaptive potential of the plant. Forty-eight monosaccharides and 28 of their derivatives have been identified in the composition of amaranth leaves of different ages. The maximum number of hydrophilic carbohydrate metabolites clustered in the young leaf. However, in older leaves, the number of water soluble metabolites showed similarities to that of the soluble in ethyl alcohol. Along with the general carbohydrate metabolites, the old leaves also contained specific monosaccharides, such as, lixopyranose, glucose, sorbose, mannobiose, cellobiose, and monosaccharide derivatives, i.e., methyl galactoside, glucopyranosiduronic and glucuronic acids, and alcohol erythritol. However, in Amaranthus tricolor L., the young leaf is characterized by arabinofuranose and carbohydrate derivatives, i.e., alpha-ketogluconic, arabinohexane, glucaric, galactaric, xylonic-D, lactone acids, and alcohol pentatriol. The leaves of different ages’ composition showed polyhydric alcohols (glycerin, ribitol, and myo-inositol). It also showed osmoprotective and antioxidant properties.

Keywords: Amaranthus tricolor L., cv. ‘Valentina,’ mono- and disaccharides and their derivatives, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), antioxidants

Key findings: The gathered results show that the metabolism of Amaranthus tricolor L. leaves in different ages included general and specific monosaccharides. Their derivatives also exhibit antioxidant and osmoprotective properties.

Download this article

Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.20

Comparative study on fruit yield and quality traits of the new mango cultivars grown under Egypt conditions

S.A. ELSHAHAWY, S.A. NOMIER, F.S. MOHSEN, M.M. GAD, and R.A. KELANI

SUMMARY

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is Egypt’s third major fruit crop. The latest study aimed to evaluate 11 foreign mango cultivars Kent, Palmar, Yasmina Rose, Shelly, Nam Doc Mai, Osten, Glenn, Sensation, Kensington Pride, Heidi, and Joa, in two successive seasons of 2018 and 2019, under Egyptian environmental conditions. The experiment comprised a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 11 treatments and three replications to analyze the mango cultivars for floral aspects, fruit yield, its components, and fruit quality characteristics. Results indicated that cultivars Sensation and Yasmina Rose produced the highest fruit yield per tree. Cultivars Osten, Yasmina Rose, and Kent gained the maximum fruit weight. The study noted the uppermost value of fruit retention (%) for cultivars Palmar, Osten, and Joa. As for the initial fruit set, the highest value appeared in cultivars Heidi and Yasmina Rose, while cultivars Heidi and Kensington Pride revealed the highest value of fruit pulp firmness at the early stage of ripening in July. The Shelly cultivar recorded the highest percentage of pulp per fruit, while the lowest fruit fibers and total acidity percentage came from the Glenn cultivar. The fruits of Nam Doc Mai cultivar contained the highest total soluble solids and total sugar percentages, whereas fruits of the Heidi cultivar contained the highest value of vitamin C. Cultivars noted with the alternate bearing habit consisted of Kensington Pride, Palmer, and Shelly, while all other cultivars exhibited regular bearing. Mango cultivars Glenn, Nam Doc Mai, Osten, Kensington Pride, Shelly, Joa, Yasmina Rose, Sensation, Kent, Palmer, and Heidi (first mentioned, most recommended in descending order) received high recommendations for successful cultivation under the Egyptian environmental conditions based on relatively better fruit setting and quality.

Keywords: Mango (Mangifera indica L.), cultivars, evaluation, flowers, fruit yield, retention, fruit quality, fruit fibers and acidity

Key findings: The 11 mango cultivars exhibited varied differences in their characteristics. Reasons for these variations can be mainly due to their varied genetic makeup, as well as, the interaction between mango genotypes and the environment.

Download this article

Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.17

Pear (Pyrus Communis L.) genotypes and their hybrids evaluation for winter hardiness in the Central Region of Russia

S.V. REZVYAKOVA, A.V. TARAKIN, N.I. BOTUZ, and E.V. MITINA

SUMMARY

This study comprises the selection of winter-hardy to highly winter-hardy pear (Pyrus CommunisL.) hybrid seedlings procured from various genetic origins. The development of pear hybrids resulted from intraspecific, interspecific, and distant hybridization. The simulation of the most damaging factors in the artificial climate chamber ensued according to the second and third components of winter hardiness – maximum frost resistance in a hardened state and stability of resistance to frost during the thaw. Critical temperatures affected the same seedlings, successively applying the specified modes, i.e., hardening at -10°C, freezing at -37°C (12 h), hardening at -10°C, thaw at +2°C (5 days), and freezing at -25°C (12 h). Combining genetically related variants to the highly winter-resistant cultivar, Phorun established the high breeding value for the yield of hybrid seedlings resistant to frost on the 2 + 3 components of winter hardiness. Thus, in the family 17-43-30 (Phorun – free pollination) × Shihan, 5.0% of transgressive genotypes came up, which withstood the given modes without damage to the buds and central tissues, showing 48.3% of highly winter-resistant forms. In a hybrid combination of 24-45-45 (Phorun × Olivier de Serre) × (Gervais + Olivier de Serre + Dekanka Zimnyaya), 33.3% of seedlings with frost resistance at the level of the highly winter-resistant control cultivar Tonkovetka attained selection. Remote hybridization opens up new opportunities in the pears’ selection for frost resistance. In total, and as a result of distant hybridization, 5.47% of the genotypes (with frost resistance for the 2 + 3 components of winter hardiness above Tonkovetka), 18.24% (at the level of Tonkovetka with freezing to 1.0 point), and 20.73% types (at the level of winter-resistant control cultivar Bessemyanka with freezing to 2.0 points) gained distinction.

Keywords: Pear, breeding, hybrid seedlings, frost resistance, winter hardiness components

Key findings: A comparative assessment was done on the winter hardiness of pear (Pyrus Communis L.) cultivars and their hybrids obtained through intraspecific, interspecific, and distant hybridization. New donors of winter hardiness and their hybrids received identification. Pear populations with highly winter-hardy traits gained selection from the genotypes of different genetic origins, i.e., Pyrus communis, P. ussuriensis, and P. bretschneideri.

Download this article

Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.16

 

Nitrogen nutrition of crop plants in the precision farming system in the South and Southeast Kazakhstan

V.N. GUSEV, SH.O. BASTAUBAYEVA, A.E. KHIDIROV, E.K. ZHUSUPBEKOV, and L.K. TABYNBAYEVA

SUMMARY

South and Southeast Kazakhstan underwent soil nitrogen forecasting and diagnosing for nutrition to establish the requirement of nitrogen fertilizers for field crops. The study established the possible use of alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen as an indicator to provide field crops with available soil nitrogen. Managing the soil organic matter more accurately as the main source of nitrogen helps determine the spatial and temporal variability of its content in each specific field and to use a narrower (oriented to the prevailing soil types) scale of humus availability. The recent studies began in several stages, during 2014–2016, 2015–2017, and 2020–2021, on the irrigated light chestnut calcareous medium loamy non-saline and non-alkaline soil formed at the foothill loess plain of the Zailiyskiy Alatau, Kazakhstan. The nitrogen content of nitrates varied significantly over the years of research. In the control variants (without fertilizers), the recording of the minimum content of N-NO3 took place in 2016 compared with 2014 and 2015. In two consecutive years (2020–2021), 2,816 ha of arable land underwent testing in Almaty, Zhambyl, and Zhetysu regions, Kazakhstan. A total collection of 1,015 soil samples went through analysis, revealing a close correlation between the content of humus and alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm. The hydrothermal conditions from a long multi-factorial field experiment data largely affected the intensity of mineralization and immobilization processes of the available nitrogen compounds. The rational use of nitrogen fertilizers makes it possible to increase the field crop yield with good quality and enhance the payback of applied fertilizers, maintaining and improving soil fertility.

Keywords: Light chestnut soil, humus, alkaline hydrolyzable nitrogen, the need for nitrogen fertilizers, the planned harvest

Key findings: Rational use of nitrogen fertilizers and the determination of spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen fertilizer consumption fully control the state of provision of plants.

Download this article

Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.15

 

First testimony of new host plant of Colletotrichum magnum (S.F. Jenkins & Winstead) Rossman & W.C. Allen causing anthracnose in Carica papaya L. fruits in Bali, Indonesia

S.K. SUDIRGA, I.M.S. WIJAYA, and A.A.K. DARMADI

SUMMARY

Anthracnose forms a group of fungal diseases that affect a variety of crop plants in warm and humid areas. Anthracnose causes the wilting, withering, and dying of tissues of plants, commonly infecting the developing shoots, leaves, and fruits. It critically affects the quality and production of Carica papaya fruits in Bali, Indonesia. The pathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Colletotrichum cause anthracnose fungal disease. Research on morphology and molecular identification of pathogenic fungi is very important to determine the type of pathogenic fungus that causes anthracnose disease in the papaya fruit. The latest study aims to identify the pathogen that caused anthracnose on papaya fruits in Bali, Indonesia, carried out during July – December 2021 at the Belok Village, District of Petang, Badung Regency, and in Laboratory of Biochemistry, Udayana University, Badung Regency, Bali, Indonesia. The study used Koch’s postulates to confirm the pathogenicity and continued with macro- and micro-morphological characterization. Based on macro- and micro-morphological characterization, the pathogen has shown similar traits to the genus Colletotrichum. Molecular identification took place using the ITS sequences to increase data robustness. Based on the molecular analysis, the DNA sequences of the genus Colletotrichum isolated from papaya fruits showed the symptoms of anthracnose disease. Based on the latest findings, the pathogen causing anthracnose disease in Carica papaya fruits showed as the species Colletotrichum magnum in Bali, Indonesia.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Colletotrichum magnum, anthracnose, molecular identification

Key findings: The latest study identified the pathogenic fungi (species Colletotrichum magnum) causing anthracnose disease on Carica papaya fruits through morphological and molecular approaches.

Download this article

Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.14

Tags