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Potassium and nano-copper fertilization effects on morphological and production traits of oat (Avena sativa L.)

M.N.H. AL-YASARI

SUMMARY

Potassium is the third essential nutrient of commercial fertilizers, which strengthens plants’ abilities to resist diseases and plays a vital role in increasing crop yields and overall quality. Nanofertilizers offer benefits in nutrition management through their strong potential to increase nutrient uptake efficiency and release nutrients very slowly compared with conventional fertilizers. Potassium fertilizer and nano-copper fertilization effects on oat (Avena sativa L.) morphological and yield traits have been studied in the spring season 2020–2021 at the Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Iraq. The said study conducted research with two factors, viz., potassium fertilizer levels (0, 80, and 160 kg ha-1) and nano-copper concentrations (0, 30, and 60 mg L-1) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Potassium fertilization at the rate of 160 kg ha-1 produced the highest mean number of tillers, spikes m2, 1000-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, with average values of 510.37 tillers m-2, 438.99 spikes m-2, 41.14 g, 26.52 ton ha-1 , 5.85 ton ha-1 , and 22.00%, respectively. The nano-copper application at the concentration of 60 mg L-1 followed by the values of 478.13 tillers mm-2, 418.87 spikes m-2, 36.91 g, 4.69 ton ha-1, 25.25 ton ha-1, and 22.02%, respectively. The combined use of potassium (160 kg ha-1 and nano-copper (60 mg L-1) proved more effective in boosting the oat grain yield. Results revealed that the oat exhibited more favorable vegetative and productive development features after receiving potassium and nano-copper fertilization.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Oat (Avena sativa L.), potassium, nano-copper, nutrients, fertilization, grain yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.20

Effect of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles on the antioxidant enzymes in seedlings of Triticum aestivum L

G.H. ISMAILOVA and I.V. AZIZOV

During their lifetime, plants are constantly exposed to varied environmental factors, which leads to an enhancement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant system (AOS) that controls the level of ROS and protects the plant cells. The latest study considered the changes in the activity of several high molecular weight components of the AOS—ascorbate peroxidase (APO), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (POL)—in two-week old seedlings of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under the influence of different (trivalent ferric oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles [NPs]). The study observed the activity of investigated enzymes under the influence of several NPs depends on varietal characteristics in wheat seedlings. In the tested wheat cultivars’ seedlings, ferric oxide NPs led to a sharp increase in activity of APO in the cultivars Dagdash and Gobustan. However, in the seedlings of cultivars, Sheki-1 and Mirbashir-128, a decline in the enzyme activity was observed. Concerning the influence of aluminum oxide NPs, the study affirmed that increasing the concentration of NPs leads to increase in the enzyme activity, in addition to the activity of APO. The results concluded that each plant genotype has its mechanisms for removing the harmful effects of aluminum oxide NPs, which include antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the latest findings can help serve as a basis for the wheat cultivars selection with more resistance to abiotic stress conditions.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L, nanoparticles, activity, ascorbate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.19

Morphometric and biochemical assessment of Nigella L. genotypes of European-Asian origin

V.I. NEMTINOV, Y.N. KOSTANCHUK, S.M. MOTYLEVA, O.A. PEKHOVA, L.A. TIMASHEVA, V.S. PASHTETSKIY, and A.G. KATSKAYA

SUMMARY

A recent study in 2019-2020 assessed the productivity, the quality of fatty and essential oils, and the mineral composition of eight nigella genotypes at the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution (FSBSI), Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Simferopol, Russia. Of the eight genotypes, two cultivars originated from Crimea, Russia (Nigella sativa cv. ‘Krymchanka,’ and Nigella damascena cv. ‘Yalita’), and one each from six European-Asian countries, i.e., Dagestan, Uzbekistan, and Sweden (Nigella sativa), Pakistan and India (Nigella indica), and Belgium (Nigella damascena). The Russian nigella genotypes served as control. Genotypes from three European-Asian countries (Sweden, Pakistan, and Dagestan) distinguished from the rest by their highest seed productivity, i.e., 1.0-1.6 g plant-1, which was 1.7-2.7 times higher than the control cultivar ‘Krymchanka.’ The seed productivity of the genotype N. damascena cv. ‘Yalita’ control was 1.5 times greater than the nigella genotype from Belgium. The N. indica produced the highest fatty oil content (29.9%), which exceeded two other species, i.e., N. sativa and N. damascena by 16%–22%. Fatty oils of nigella also contained essential oils of 0.5% for N. sativa and 1.2% for N. damascena. The essential oil of N. sativa contained dominant components, such as, p-cymene (53.5%) and thymoquinone (19.2%), while N. damascena contained p-cymol (82.2%) and other principal components. The identified samples with the maximum accumulation of fatty and essential oils, and macro and microelements can be used to treat and replenish the deficient elements in the human body. Nigella genotype samples exhibited high accumulation of microelements, viz., potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum in the leaves and seeds.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Nigella genotypes, leaves, seeds, fatty acids and essential oils, mineral elements, submicroscopic scanning, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.18

Seed priming effects on morphological traits of Amaranthus hypochondriacus under optimal and low temperatures

J. FENG, М.S. GINS, and V.C. GINS

The recent research evaluated the effects of growth stimulant seed treatment on the morphological traits of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. cv. ‗Krepysh‘ grown under optimal and low positive temperature conditions. The seeds were continuously soaked for 4 h in five different solutions of growth stimulants, i.e., salicylic acid (SAA – 138 mg/L), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 – 10 and 50 mmol/L), calcium chloride (CaCl2 – 3000 mg/L), succinic acid (SUA – 500 mg/L), and control (distilled water). The stimulant-primed seeds were germinated at optimal temperature (23°C) and continued to germinate at low temperatures of 10°C (T10) and 23°C (T23). The results showed that seed germination rates viz., germination potential (GP), germination rate (GR), germination index (GI), viability index (VI), and seed vigor index (SVI), were significantly improved with seed quality potential compared with the control. Under low positive temperature, seeds treated with succinic acid, H2O2, and CaCl2 had the most significant effects on improving seed quality and induced cold resistance in the seeds. The morphological indicators of amaranth seedlings, i.e., biomass, hypocotyl, and root length, were also significantly improved with seed treatment by growth stimulants. Priming of amaranth seeds with hydrogen peroxide and succinic acid showed a greater increase in seedlings‘ biomass at room (23°C) and low (10°C) temperatures. The seed treatment with SUA and SAA significantly contributed to enhancing the hypocotyl length. The amaranth roots achieved maximum length after seed treatment with SUA and CaCl2. In general, the seed treatment effects on seedling’s biomass under chilling stress were associated with the potential of inducing cold tolerance in seedlings

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., seed soaking, germination, chilling stress, salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, succinic acid

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.17

Temperature critical threshold for yield in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

ROSMAINA, ZULFAHMI, M. JANNAH, and SOBIR

SUMMARY

Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a horticultural plant susceptible to high-temperature stress. This research studied how agronomic and physiological characteristics of chili decline due to high temperature and determined the threshold value of temperature decreasing 50% of its yield. The experiment layout followed a randomized design, consisting of five temperature stress levels (in the growth chamber), namely, 31°C (daily temperature as a control), 33°C, 35°C, 37°C, and 39°C, with an exposure duration of 10 h. The temperature stress started when the plant reached the flowering phase. The plant parameters observed included agronomic and physiological characteristics. The study results showed that high-temperature decreased production significantly with the decline in all agronomic and physiological traits. The threshold temperature at 32.86°C has reduced the production of chili plants by 50% compared with the control. The study found that an increase in temperature of 2°C for 10 h in the flowering phase reduces chili production by 68.78%, and temperature stress at a maximum of 39°C for 10 h during flowering reduces chili production up to 87.52%. Hence, based on the study results, future research on chili should focus on developing varieties that are adaptive to high temperatures.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), heat stress, pollen viability, stomatal damage, flowering stage, yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.15

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Male flower characteristics of induced tetraploid, mixoploid, and diploid banana Musa acuminata (AA) cv. “Pisang Rejang”

D. MARTANTI, Y.S. POERBA, WITJAKSONO, HERLINA and F. AHMAD

SUMMARY

The banana cultivar “Pisang Rejang” (Musa AA “Pisang Rejang”) is Fusarium wilt resistant and therefore important for banana breeding. Tetraploid (4x) and mixoploid (2x+4x) plants of this cultivar have been induced with oryzalin, and crosses of these two ploidy levels resulted in a triploid hybrid (3x) plant. The availability of these various ploidy levels needs to be accompanied by data on their reproductive biology for their efficient utilization for breeding. This study characterized male flowers concerning qualitative and quantitative morphology, pollen viability, pollen size, nectar volume, nectar Brix index, and acidity level of those different ploidy levels. Observations indicated no differences in qualitative morphological traits, such as, shape and color, but for quantitative morphological traits, such as, size, distinction existed among the different ploidy levels. The triploid plant has huge flower parts in all the quantitative morphological traits, except compound tepal width, followed by the tetraploid, diploid, and mixoploid. Variations also occurred in pollen viability, pollen size, and nectar characters from each level of ploidy. Pollen viability is the highest for the diploid plant, while the tetraploid plant produces bigger pollen than the diploid. The triploid plant produced a low percentage of viable pollen. The study findings indicate that ploidy level affects the flower’s quantitative morphological characteristics, pollen viability, and pollen size, but not the flower’s qualitative morphological characteristics.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Pollen, viability, nectar, morphological character, breeding

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.14

Irradiation and polyamines impact on growth traits of grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata L.) Cultivated in vitro rooting

S.A. ALMUKHTAR and S.G.SH. BAJLAN

SUMMARY

Grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata L.) is an ornamental plant rich in cardiac glycosides, which stimulates heart activities and achieves greater attention for propagation through various traditional methods and modern tissue culture using gamma irradiation alone and in combination with polyamines. The recent study aimed to screen and select the effective doses and concentrations of irradiation and polyamines, respectively, for better growth traits of Digitalis lanata. The D. lanata seeds were irradiated with gamma-ray doses (0, 25, 50 grays [Gy]), and the spermidine (SPD) was used with various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg L-1). The results showed the superiority of gamma radiation with a dosage of 50 Gy by achieving the highest average germination rate of 100% (7.10 seeds day-1). In the rooting experiment, results further indicated that the radiation treatment (50 Gy) also excelled over other treatments, giving the highest percentage of rooting and root number, and root length, as well as, fresh and dried weights of root total, with values of 65.80%, 41.18 roots plant-1, 3.83 cm, 1.90 mg, and 0.90 mg, respectively compared with neutral (control) treatment. Concerning the effect of polyamine, the concentration of 1.5 mg L-1 proved to lead by producing the highest percentage of rooting and root number, roots length, as well as, fresh and dried weights of root total, amounting to 73%, 54.18 roots plant-1, 4.21 cm, 2.25 mg, and 1.19 mg, respectively compared with control. Low-dose gamma irradiation affected the seed germination and growth traits of D. lanata. The individual use of spermidine (polyamine) also enhanced the root number and length.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata L.), gamma rays, polyamine spermidine, plant tissue culture, germination, rooting, fresh and dry root weight

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.13

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Molecular and morphological identification of Trichoderma isolates from Egyptian agriculture wastes-rich soil

M.H. ISMAIEL, A.M. El ZANATY, and K.S. ABDEL-LATEIF

SUMMARY

Twenty isolates of Trichoderma were recovered from lignocellulosic agriculture wastes-rich soil collected from different Egyptian cities (Sadat, Tala, Abo Hamad, Belbeis, Zagazig, Mansoura, Belqas, Kafer-Elshikh, Bella, Tanta, Borg El Arab, Banha, Kafr Shoker, Qalyoub, Shebien Elqanater, Damanhur, Abu al-Matamir, Damietta, Kafr al-Battikh, and Kafr Saad). The Trichoderma isolates were first identified morphologically using conidiophore branching type and conidium morphology. Furthermore, molecular identification based on the ITS (internal transcribed spacers) barcode differentiated between Trichoderma isolates having 98.6% to 100% identity with two Trichoderma species: T. asperellum and T. longibrachiatum. Qualitative and quantitative tests were used for screening the cellulolytic activity of these isolates. The isolates were screened for cellulase production based on the clearing zone diameters and calorimetrically tested on minimal media supplemented with sugar cane bagasse and rice straw as sole carbon sources. The isolates TM41 (T. longibrachiatum) and TM35 (T. asperellum) exhibited the highest diameters of clear zones and showed higher Fpase and CMCase activities. Moreover, the isolate TM18 of T. asperellum displayed the highest diameters of clear zones and showed higher Fpase and Xylanase activities.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, ITS primers, cellulase activities, biodegradation, lignocellulosic wastes

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.12

Genetic diversity of maize inbred lines based on morphological traits and its association with heterosis

A.M.M. AL-NAGGAR, A.M. SOLIMAN, M.H. HUSSIEN, and A.M.H. MOHAMED

SUMMARY

In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.11

Genetic variability in weedy rice biotypes found in direct-seeded rice areas in the Philippines

L.M. JULIANO, X.G.I. CAGUIAT, E.V. EVANGELISTA, E.C. MARTIN, and A.H.M. RAMIREZ

Weedy rice can severely impact rice production through yield reduction because of its competitive ability to reduce growth resources for cultivated rice. The characteristic weedy traits have made weedy rice very challenging to manage as they have the same agro-morphological characteristics with cultivated rice. The study examined the relationships between selected cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, weedy rice biotypes, and wild rice collected from different locations in the Philippines, using simple sequence repeat markers. Cluster analysis, using UPGMA, enabled the genetic differentiation and relationships examination of the test materials. Subgroups of 13 with at least two biotypes formed 100% similarity based on post-harvest data, with the cultivated rice cultivars forming one subgroup. With polymorphic SSR markers, five major clusters range from three (group I) to 62 biotypes (group III). There was 100% similarity observed for 15 subgroups ranging from two to 10 biotypes. The wild rice cultivars formed species-specific groupings. Subgroups with 100% similarity came from the same province; likewise, one with 100% similarity came from both Iloilo and Batangas; and still another from cultivated rice cultivar and weedy rice biotype from Pangasinan. The possible relationships of weedy rice biotypes with wild rice relatives (>65% similarity) include two biotypes related to Oryza minuta, one for O. meyeriana, and 22 biotypes for O. rufipogon. Concerning cultivated rice cultivars, high similarity (>80%) was observed in 22 biotypes closely related to PSB Rc 82, 13 biotypes to NSIC Rc 222, six to NSIC Rc 160, three biotypes each to NSIC Rc 215, NSIC Rc 152, NSIC Rc 64, NSIC Rc 18, and NSIC Rc 10, and one biotype each to IR64 and NSIC Rc 14.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, weedy and wild rice, genetic diversity, genetic relationship, SSR markers

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.10