Journal

Category Archive Journal

Genetic diversity of Bak-kala (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. SM.) in Aceh Province, Indonesia

SAUDAH, ZUMAIDAR, DARUSMAN, FITMAWATI, D.I. ROSLIM , E. JULIANTARI, ERNILASARI, and K. WALIL

SUMMARY

Torch ginger – bak-kala (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.SM.) already has been proven an effective traditional medicine by tribes in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Solid primary evidence for the torch ginger, bak-kala’s medicinal properties include the healing effects experienced by the traditional tribes in Aceh, when treated for illnesses, such as, cough, fever, and sprains. Likewise, it has been proven to be a use for food ingredients, i.e., vegetables and spices to enhance the taste of food. Much of the available documented information focused on its biochemical and pharmacological aspects. Even though the utilization of bak-kala resources is mainly at the level of diversity, there is no information on its genetic diversity in Aceh. The high intensity of bak-kala utilization is not simultaneous with information on its genetic diversity. On the other hand, many uses of bak-kala are specific for certain accessions with particular benefits. The study aimed to create a classification system for bak-kala variations based on inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers and to provide information on the genetic diversity of bak-kala in Aceh Province. The 35 accessions were divided into eight populations based on the geographical locations from which they were collected. Data were recorded and analyzed using 10 ISSR primers with 77 total bands. The molecular characters divided the accessions into four major groups. As revealed by expected heterozygosity (He), genetic variability among the population showed that the Simeulu population possessed a greater level of variability than other populations. The results of the analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation within the population was higher (60%) than the genetic variation among populations (40%). The studies can be used to plan conservation strategies, optimal utilization of the species, and crop improvement programs in the future.

Download this article

Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Bak-kala (Etlingera elatior), diversity, genetic variability, germplasm, ISSR markers, population structure

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.4

Tags,

Genetic analysis and heterotic studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) hybrids for fruit yield and its related traits.

A. JAVED, N.N. NAWAB, S. GOHAR, A. AKRAM, K. JAVED, M. SARWAR, M.I. TABASSUM, N. AHMAD, and A.R. MALLHI

A study was conducted to determine the types of gene action of different yield-related traits in tomato and the combining ability in four advanced lines. The heterotic response in tomato hybrids was also assessed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among all the traits. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all chosen traits were computed using Griffing’s approach of diallel. Combining ability revealed the additive and non-additive genetic effects for all selected traits of advanced lines. T-1360 was found as a good general combiner for the number of cluster plant-1, average fruit weight, number of flowers cluster-1, fruit length, number of fruit cluster-1, and yield. The variance of the GCA to SCA ratio was found less than 0.5 for each trait, which confirmed the presence of non-additive gene action. The results revealed higher magnitudes of phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) than the genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV). The high magnitudes of heritability (72% to 92%) and genetic advance (36.63% to 139.72%) were found for the number of cluster plant-1, average fruit weight (g), the number of fruits cluster-1, and yield. Among all crosses, the cross ST-100 × T-1360 showed maximum positive heterosis over the mid parent (566.6%) and the better parent (455.5%). The identified tomato genotypes can be used further in different tomato breeding programs to improve fruit yield and other yield-related traits.

Download the article

Date published: September 2022

Keywords: GCA and SCA, heritability, heterosis, Solanum lycopersicum L.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.3

Genetic analysis of upland rice F4 populations (Sileso × Ciherang) for phenological and yield related traits

M. SYAHRIL, SYUKRI, D.S. SIREGAR, and MURDIANI

SUMMARY

Climate change increases the drought-affected areas, which challenge the breeders to develop adaptive and drought-tolerant rice cultivars. The study aimed to determine heritability, and gene action controlling of various traits in upland rice F4 populations derived from the cross, Sileso (high yielding and drought tolerant) × Ciherang (early maturing), and to obtain high-yielding and earlymaturing rice lines. The upland rice F4 populations, along with parental and check cultivars, were planted in augmented design from July to November 2021 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Samudra University, Langsa, Indonesia. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the check cultivars for the traits, such as, panicle length, productive tillers, filled grains per panicle, and grain yield per plant. The F4 population families revealed significant differences for the maturity, filled grain per panicle, and grain yield per plant, which confirmed greater genetic diversity, and proved potential to produce the best lines. The check vs. family interactions also exhibited significant differences for all the characters. Results revealed high heritability for the traits, i.e., maturity, filled grain per panicle, and grain yield per plant. The inheritance of all the characters was controlled by the additive gene action. Inheritance of the majority of the traits was polygenic except plant height and productive tillers. The selected and promising upland rice F4 populations revealed reduced plant height, maturity, and increased yield per plant compared with its rice parental cultivar ‘Sileso’.

Download this article

Date Published: September 2022

Keywords: Upland rice, drought tolerance, heritability, gene action

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.2

Genetic diversity among the Philippine traditional maize (Zea mays L.) populations based on SSR markers.

P.R. GUEVARRA, J.F. PARIL, R.R. GARDOCE, A.M. SALAZAR, and A.O. CANAMA-SALINAS

Summary

This paper reports the first genetic diversity analysis of Philippine traditional maize populations performed through a cost-effective DNA pooling strategy. The diversity among selected 100 traditional maize populations collected from Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao was evaluated using twenty simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers at the Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. A total of 138 bands ranging from two to 12 bands per primer were detected. The average number of polymorphic alleles, polymorphism rate, effective multiplex ratio, marker index, resolving power, and expected heterozygosity are 6.283, 87.17%, 5.798, 4.104, 15.897, and 0.658, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) varied between 0.141 to 0.848, with an average value of 0.620. A dendrogram was constructed with a dissimilarity coefficient ranging from 0.14 to 0.55 and a mean dissimilarity index of 0.425. Cluster analysis revealed 13 groups based on the result of Approximately Unbiased (AU) p-values from 10,000 bootstrap iterations. The cluster analysis enabled the classification of populations with ambiguous places of origin. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher within-population diversity (70%) than among-population diversity (30%) with PhiPT (pairwise genetic differentiation metric) of 0.298 (P = 0.001). These results revealed the significant diversity of traditional maize populations in the Philippines and the power of SSR markers in diversity and cluster analyses despite the age of this marker technology. These findings will aid plant breeders in developing approaches towards knowledgeable and efficient execution of breeding programs using traditional maize populations.

Download the article

Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Traditional maize, Philippine germplasm, cluster analysis, SSR markers, AMOVA, bootstrapping

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.1

Tags,

Marine algae extracts, and nano fertilizer with zinc and copper effects on growth and macro- and micronutrients composition of apple trees

KH.A. KAREEM, Z.O.O. ALOJANY, and A.S.A. AL-JANABI

SUMMARY

Bioactive compound marine algae extracts (MAE), nano-zinc (nZn) and nano-copper (nCu) fertilizer effects on growth traits, and macro– and micronutrient composition in apple trees were studied. The recent study was carried out in 2021 at the laboratories of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq, and Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq. In the conducted experiment, the treatments comprise the foliar application of marine algae extracts with two concentrations at 0.5 and 1 ml L-1, nZn at 1 and 2 g L-1, nCu at 1 and 2 g L-1, and a control in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that apple trees treated with marine algae extracts were superior in enhancing the shoot length, diameter, leaves per tree, leaf area, leaf dry matter, and percentages of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and copper (Cu). The other two treatments (nZn and nCu) also showed highest values for some characteristics and moderate values for other traits that excelled the control treatment. Zinc percentage was significant in apple tree leaves when treated with two concentrations of nZn (1, 2 g L-1 ) reaching 1.89% and 1.97%, respectively. The highest Cu percentages were recorded in the apple tree leaves treated with both concentrations of nCu (1, 2 g L-1) reaching 3.66% and 3.78%, respectively. The potassium percentage was significantly high in apple tree leaves for all the treatments. The control treatment was recorded with the lowest values in all the characteristics.

Download the article

Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Apple trees, marine algae extracts, nano-zinc, nano-copper, growth, macro– and micronutrients composition

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.14

Bio-catharantin effects on phenotypic traits and chromosome number of shallots (Allium Cepa L. var. Ascalonicum ‘Tajuk’)

A.T. BILLA, S.S. LESTARI, B.S. DARYONO, and A.S. SUBIASTUTI

SUMMARY

The seasonal production of Allium cepa var. ascalonicum causes a rise in its demand during the offseason. Consumers mostly prefer onion cultivars like the ‘Super Philip’, because of their high productivity, large and round bulbs, shiny appearance, and less spicy taste. In plant breeding, polyploidy induction through mutagens is a technique often used to produce shallot cultivars of better quality. Bio-Catharantin from the leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus L. is used as a polyploid induction agent instead of colchicine. The latest study aimed to determine the effect of BioCatharantin concentration (0.2% and 0.4%) on phenotypic traits (plant height, bulb mass, and the number of bulbs), and the chromosome number to determine the minimum concentration that could cause polyploidization in shallots. The research was conducted from December 2020 to February 2021 in a greenhouse in Madurejo, Prambanan, and the Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Bio-Catharantin concentration did not affect plant height which was comparable with the control. Both treatments caused an increase in bulb mass up to 37.7 and 41.76 g at the concentrations of 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively, compared with the control (31.47 g). The number of bulbs increased up to 10.6 and 9.8 g for 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations, respectively, compared with 8.8 in the control. The ploidy level of cells was increased from 2n (16) to 3n (24) at 2% and 4n (32) at 4% Bio-Catharantin.

Download the article

Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Shallots (Allium cepa L.), Catharanthus roseus L., bio-catharantin, polyploid, chromosome number, phenotypic traits

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.11

Isolation and diagnosis of cadmium-resistant bacteria and its potential phytoremediation with the broad bean plant

I.A. ABED, A. MARZOOG, A.M.S. ADDAHERI, and M.H. AL-ISSAWI

SUMMARY

Results of the study proved that phytoremediation can be a promising technique to treat cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil. Four bacteria types were isolated from the soil; two are autotrophic and others are heterotrophic. Autotrophic bacteria were dominant in soils with 42 mg Cd Kg-1. The total count and diversity of both bacteria types decreased with the increase of Cd in media and reached their minimum limit of tolerance at 60 mg Cd L-1 in terms of the heterotrophic bacteria, while the minimum limit of tolerance in the case of autotrophic bacteria was at 110 mg Cd L-1. The four isolates can form biofilms that ranged in thickness between 2.8–4.3 mm. The tolerant isolates belong to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Actinobacteria, and Corynebacterium. Shoot and dry weight significantly varied according to the changes in Cd concentrations and isolate types. The level in either shoot or root exceeded critical levels, however, its concentration was higher in the root compared with the shoot. The effect of Cd on broad bean plants began at 80 and 100 mg Cd L-1. The broad bean plant was resistant to growing in the contaminated area by Cd even at 120 mg Cd Kg1DW. The presence of heterotrophic bacteria was noticeably useful for autotrophic bacteria, as well as, for enhancing Cd resistance. The study showed that cooperative phytoremediation could be a safe and active technique to apply in the field soil contaminated with heavy metals.

Download the article

Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Broad bean, cadmium, heavy metals, pollution, resistant bacteria 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.17

Gamma-ras and microwave irradiation influence on GUAR (Cyamopsos tetragonoloba: I – markers assisted selection for responding to mutagenic agents

K.A.M. KHALED, F.M. SULTAN, and C.R. AZZAM

SUMMARY

The recent investigation was carried out to determine the effect of different gamma-ray doses and 900 W (2450 MHz) microwave radiation with various exposure times, separately or in combinations, on the yield, yield components, and chemical properties of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), as well as, to detect variation induction. The cDNA-SCoT technique was used to obtain molecular markers related to some traits. SSR technique was used to sequence the target fragment related to plant height. Gamma-ray doses of 150 and 250 Gy alone, and in combination with 900 W microwaves irradiation applied with different duration or time span (1, 2, 3, and 4 min) influenced the plant height significantly, as well as, number of tillers plant-1 and fresh and dry forage yield, and fresh and dry leaf stem-1ratio. In the second sample, seed yield at harvest time, e.g., pods plant-1, weight of pods plant1 , whole plant dry weight, number of seeds pod-1, length of pod, 100-seed weight, and seeds yield were affected by irradiation with different and varied responses. In the M1 generation, the 18 SCoT primers produced 327 bands ranging between 151–2895 bp in size, out of which 282 were polymorphic (86.24%). In the M2, the 18 SCoT primers produced 328 bands ranging between 2122661 bp in size, out of which 299 were polymorphic (91.16%). The M1 and M2 generations exhibited 89 positive and 39 negative bands, which could be used as marker assisted-selection in response to treated guar plants with different gamma ray doses, separately or in combinations with microwave treatments.

Download the article

Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Gamma irradiation, microwave heating, guar grain, yield and yield components, quality analysis, SCoT 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.10

Drought effects on mineral composition of the leaves and seeds of Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus

N.V. TETYANNIKOV, S.M. MOTYLEVA, М.S. GINS, N.V. КOZAK, D.V. PANISCHEVA, M.E. MERTVISCHEVA, L.F. KАBASHNIKOVA, I.N. DOMANSKAYA, and Т.S. PILIPOVICH

SUMMARY

In global climate change, drought stress is one of the environmental restraining factors that can significantly influence the growth and development of crop plants. Drought stress conditions can also cause undesirable changes in plant physiological and metabolic processes. The influence of soil drought on the mineral composition of leaves and seeds of two species of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.) with С4-type of photosynthesis was studied through energy dispersive spectrometry (ESD). The recent investigations were carried out during the years 20202022 at the Department of Genofonde and Bioresources of Plants, Federal Scientific Center for Horticulture, Moscow, Russia. The research results showed the leaves of both amaranth with major elements, i.e., K (11.23–15.33), Ca (5.15–7.61), P (3.91–3.92), Mg (2.81–3.36), and Cl (1.86–2.29), whereas, relatively lower values were recorded for Fe (0.05–0.48), and Na (0.07–0.11) mass% respectively. Regarding amaranth plants seed composition, the major elements were K (13.86–13.97), P (7.02–9.76), Mg (3.78–5.64), Ca (3.31–4.78), Cl (2.81–5.30), and Mo (2.80–2.86) mass% respectively. In the species, A. tricolor, a strong correlation was observed between the elements, i.e., S-Cu, Mg-Si, Na-Cu, Na-S, Na-Ca, Na-Si, and Si-S in leaves, while in seeds, these were between CaCu, Mg-Cl, Si-Mn, Ca-Mo, and Cl-Mn. In the other species of amaranth, A. cruentus, the elements viz., Mg-S, Mg-Mo, S-Mo, Mg-Cl, S-Cl, Cl-Mo, Cl-P, P-S, Si-Cl, Ca-Mo, S-Ca, Mg-Ca, Mg-P, P-Mo, and Mg-Si in leaves, while Ni-Cu, Mg-P, Si-P, and Si-Cl in seeds also showed strong relationship. Effects of drought led to a weakening of these ties and the formation of new ones. The accumulation of mineral elements in the leaves of amaranth plants varies from species to species under drought conditions, and A. tricolor cv. Valentina was found most resistant to drought conditions.

Download the article

Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Mineral composition, leaves, seeds, drought stress, EDS analysis, Amaranthus tricolor L., Amaranthus cruentus L.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.18

Effect of planting and bud placement position on agronomical and physiological traits of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

N. MANGRIO, N. MARI, G.S. MANGRIO, Z.A. SOOMRO, A.A. SIMAIR, and B. KUMAR

SUMMARY

Different planting techniques influence the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sugarcane. This study focused on the hypothesis that altering sett spacing and bud placement position significantly improves sugarcane yield and quality. The experiment was conducted during the periods, 2016–2017 and 2017–2018, under field conditions at the Sugarcane Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan. The sugarcane variety, PSTJ-41, was used for the study in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Spacing between setts included S1 = end to end, S2 = 15 cm, S3 = 22 cm, and S4 = 30 cm. Bud placement position consisted of B1= buds up and down, and B2 = buds faced to ridge. Analysis revealed that sett spacings and bud placement positions significantly (P<0.05) affected almost all the studied agronomical, physiological, and qualitative sugarcane traits. Enhanced sugarcane sprouting (%), crop growth rate (gm-2day-1), leaf area index, cane length (cm), internodes cane-1, millable canes (000 ha-1), Brix (%), commercial cane sugar (CCS %), and cane yield (t ha-1) were observed with setts plantation of a distance at 30 cm apart. In the case of bud position, B2 showed maximum growth, yield, and best quality attributes. The highest and desirable mean values of the various parameters were documented in the interaction of 30 cm sett spacings × buds faced to ridges regarding interactive effects.

Download the article

Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Sugarcane, sett spacing, bud placement position, growth, millable canes, cane yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.19