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Possibility of higher green plants heterotrophic nutrition

A.I. POPOV1, V.N. ZELENKOV, and M.V. MARKOV

SUMMARY

Drought is a severe causal factor of reduced crop yields than other abiotic stresses. Therefore, four sorghum genotypes underwent evaluation for their drought tolerance under three irrigation levels (100%, 70%, and 40% from evapotranspiration) under three sowing dates at the Higher Institute for Agricultural Cooperation Farm, Regwa region, Alexandria Desert Road, Egypt, to study the mean performance of grain yield plant-1 and transcriptomic analysis. The performance results reported that Shandaweel-6 and Hybrid-306 revealed the highest drought-tolerant hybrids, while Dorado and Giza-113 cultivars showed the lowest. The transcriptomic profiling of sorghum under normal and drought stress used the RNA-Seq method. Two differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves respond to drought. In the DREB2 case, the greatest average fold change showed 10.7 and 9.3 for the tolerant hybrids, Hybrid-306 and Shandaweel-6, respectively. Both genotypes performed significantly higher than the average fold change calculated for the sensitive genotypes Dorado and Giza-113 cultivars. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular basis of drought tolerance of sorghum and promotes sorghum improvement.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor DREB2, CBF4, transcriptomic, cDNA, transcription factors, drought stress

Key findings: Sorghum hybrids Shandaweel-6 and Hybrid-306 received classification as drought-tolerant because of their best performance under drought stress and normal conditions. Both hybrids possess resistance genes for drought and other abiotic stresses. However, the cultivars Dorado and Giza-113 proved susceptible to drought stress due to their weak performances under drought-stress conditions.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.13

Performance and transcriptomic analysis of Sorghum bicolor responding to drought stress

A.M. HASSAN, M.F. AHMED, and M.A. RASHED

SUMMARY

Drought is a severe causal factor of reduced crop yields than other abiotic stresses. Therefore, four sorghum genotypes underwent evaluation for their drought tolerance under three irrigation levels (100%, 70%, and 40% from evapotranspiration) under three sowing dates at the Higher Institute for Agricultural Cooperation Farm, Regwa region, Alexandria Desert Road, Egypt, to study the mean performance of grain yield plant-1 and transcriptomic analysis. The performance results reported that Shandaweel-6 and Hybrid-306 revealed the highest drought-tolerant hybrids, while Dorado and Giza-113 cultivars showed the lowest. The transcriptomic profiling of sorghum under normal and drought stress used the RNA-Seq method. Two differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves respond to drought. In the DREB2 case, the greatest average fold change showed 10.7 and 9.3 for the tolerant hybrids, Hybrid-306 and Shandaweel-6, respectively. Both genotypes performed significantly higher than the average fold change calculated for the sensitive genotypes Dorado and Giza-113 cultivars. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular basis of drought tolerance of sorghum and promotes sorghum improvement.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, DREB2, CBF4, transcriptomic, cDNA, transcription factors, drought stress

Key findings: Sorghum hybrids Shandaweel-6 and Hybrid-306 received classification as drought-tolerant because of their best performance under drought stress and normal conditions. Both hybrids possess resistance genes for drought and other abiotic stresses. However, the cultivars Dorado and Giza-113 proved susceptible to drought stress due to their weak performances under drought-stress conditions.

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Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.12

 

Rice grain dark spots and their impact on quality associated traits

N.G. TUMANYAN, M.A. ТKACHENKO, T.B. KUMEIKO, and S.S. CHIZHIKOVA

SUMMARY

Rice grain damage due to dark spots was noted more than 10 years ago in Russia. However, this phenomenon has long existed in other rice-growing countries. The factor limiting high rice yields are insect pests and pathogenic microorganisms, the vital activity of which leads to the occurrence of dark spots on the grain shells. This study hopes to assess the effects of dark spots on rice grains of six rice cultivars bred in Russia, i.e., Rapan, Khazar, Romans, Favorit, Trio, and Prestige. The study was carried out in 2020–2021 at the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, Federal Scientific Rice Centre, Krasnodar, Russia. With an increase in the content of damaged grains from 5% to 10% and 20%, the mass of 1000 absolutely dry grains, vitreosity, and head rice content decrease, the filminess increased, and the content of damaged grains negatively affecting the quality traits of rice grains. If the content of damaged grains is up to 5%, grain quality decreases giving no impact of the parameter. The need to predict rice grain yield and quality based on grain damage intensity caused by dark spots ensures the profitability of growing various cultivars in rice production.

Keywords: Rice germplasm, seed dark spots, grain damage, grain yield, grain quality traits

Key findings: Damaged rice grains increase in the grain mass, decrease quality, grain size, vitreosity, and head rice content, and increase filminess. Overall, the content of damaged grains significantly affects the rice grain quality traits.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.11

TAOPR1 salt tolerance gene expression and physiological traits in wheat

D.M. MAJEED, E.N. ISMAIL, F.R. AL-BURKI, A.S. ABED , and A.M.J. AL-JIBOURI

SUMMARY

Salinity is an abiotic stress factor and a major challenge that has significant negative effects on wheat production. It is also a source of concern for plant breeders leading them to reach reliable screening criteria for salt tolerance in wheat genotypes. The physiological analysis showed that the three salt-tolerant wheat genotypes viz., Dijla, 2H, and 3H showed the highest rate for the physiological traits i.e., chlorophyll content (38.9, 39.5, and 42.1, respectively),carbohydrates (600.14, 590.6, 560.8: 2H, 3H, and Dijla, respectively), proline acid (24.30, 23.14, and 21.87: Dijla, 3H, and 2H, respectively) under salt stress conditions, except protein percentage (3.8% and 3.3%: Rabia and Ibaa99, respectively) and K+/Na+ ratio (6.3 and 5.9: 2H and Dijla, respectively). The salt-tolerant wheat genotypes 2H, Dijla, and 3H enunciated an increased rate of expression of salt-related genes (TaOPR1 gene and β-actin gene) with values of 6.498, 4.0, and 3.768, respectively compared to two other salinity-sensitive cultivars i.e., Ibaa99 and Rabia under salt stress conditions. The salinity-sensitive cultivars i.e., Ibaa99 and Rabia showed no gene expression and significant difference with the control treatment after being treated with salinity stress conditions.

Keywords: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), gene expression, TaOPR1 salt tolerance gene, salt-tolerant genotypes, chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrates, proline acid, K+/ Na+

Key findings: Under saline stress conditions, the genotypes of Dijla, 2H, and 3H showed the highest content of chlorophyll, protein (%), carbohydrate, and proline acid, except for K+/Na+ ratio, and excelled other wheat genotypes in gene expression (6.498, 4.0, and 3.768), respectively at the salt level of 16 dS/m. However, the salinity-sensitive wheat genotypes Ibaa99 and Rabia provided relatively low values for the expression of TaOPR1 gene expression associated with salt tolerance.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.9

Allelic composition of gliadin-coding loci as a ‘portrait’ in spring soft wheat selections of Russian and Kazakh origins

M.U. UTEBAYEV, Y.Y. DOLINNY, S.M. DASHKEVICH, and N.A. BOME

The progressive study determined the gliadin ‘profile’ and genetic diversity based on allelic variations of gliadin-coding loci in spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) selection from Russian and Kazakh origins. A total of 139 samples obtained from a spring soft wheat collection consisting of 62 from Russia and 77 from Kazakhstan were studied. As a result of electrophoretic analysis in Russian wheat, the share of monomorphic gliadin cultivars was 63% and polymorphic was 37%. However, in the Kazakh wheat collection, the share of polymorphic gliadin cultivars was 26%. The alleles were mostly found among the Russian cultivars, i.e., Gli-А1f (46.9%), Gli-В1е (43.7%), Gli-В1b (30.8%), Gli-D1а (61.0%), Gli-А2l (17.0%), Gli-А2m (16.9%), Gli-В2o (16.1%), and Gli-D2q (19.8%). In wheat genotypes collected from Kazakhstan, the following alleles dominated, i.e., Gli-А1f (47.4%), Gli-В1е (72.0%), Gli-D1а (61.7%), Gli-А2l (25.3%), Gli-А2s (16.2%), Gli-В2r (25.7%), and Gli-D2a (40.3%).The study compiled the so-called ‘ideal’ electrophoretic spectrum of gliadin for several countries to visualize the ‘portrait’ of wheat, created based on common blocks of gliadin identified by the researchers at different times. It assumed that cultivars close to the ‘ideal’ spectrum in gliadin alleles should have a complex of economically valuable features. For example, the spectrum of Russian wheat consists of the blocks of components controlled by alleles, i.e., f, e, a, q, o, e. As for the Kazakh wheat, its ‘ideal’ spectrum f, e, a, l, r, acoincides with the spectrum of Russian wheat at the loci Gli-1, as Russian cultivars were often taken as parental genotypes by the Kazakhstan breeders.i

Keywords: spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), germplasm, breeding, gliadin, Gli-locus, polymorphism

Key findings: The concept of the ‘ideal’ electrophoretic spectrum of gliadin for specific climatic conditions is proposed, which implies that cultivars in which the spectrum of gliadin is close to ‘ideal’ can have a complex of economically valuable features.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.7

Attock-2019: A high-yielding and disease-tolerant peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar for barani tract of Punjab, Pakistan

M. HUSSAIN, S. ALI, M. ZEESHAN, G. NABI, SAADIA, W. MUZAFFAR, M. SAEED, and B. AHMAD

SUMMARY

Attock-2019 (11AK011) is an elite high-yielding, disease-tolerant, bunch-type (decumbent-2) groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)cultivar, developed at the Groundnut Research Station, Attock, Punjab, Pakistan. The cultivar resulted from the local crossing between two advanced lines, i.e., 01CG001 and 02CG005. The first cross attempt occurred during the 2005 cropping season at the Groundnut Research Station, Attock, and the selection underwent the pedigree method that continued up to the F6 generation. Attock-2019 underwent evaluation regarding its performance concerning yield, disease resistance, and adaptability to numerous yield trials like preliminary, regular, micro-, and national uniform yield trials, including evaluation at farmer fields and agronomic parameters, during 2012-2018, under the varietal code 11AK011. It out-yielded the check cultivar BARI-2011 in micro-yield trials for two consecutive years in Punjab by producing 19.52% and 17.96% yields higher than the said cultivar. Similarly, at the national level, during the national uniform groundnut yield trials in 2016 and 2017, it surpassed the check cultivars Golden and Pothowar by 30.74% (Golden) and 3.46% (Golden and Pothowar), respectively, in different ecological zones of Pakistan. This genotype is of medium duration, with 20%–25% three-seeded pods per plant. The average number of pods per plant ranged from 85–95. Its shelling percentage is high (70%–72%), with a good 100-seed weight (62-66 g). It also possessed good taste, oil content (40.5%), and protein content (21.6%). The cultivar also showed good performance under drought-stress conditions and tolerance to diseases like the Tikka disease and collar rot of groundnut. Attock-2019 can be sown from 1 April to 15 May under Barani conditions of Punjab, with 30:80:30 NPK kg ha-1 at sowing time and an application of 500 kg ha-1 gypsum at the flowering stage. Attock-2019 gained approval for general cultivation in the Punjab Barani tract during the 2021 in 54th Punjab Seed Council Meeting as the approving authority.

Keywords: Attock-2019, disease resistant, groundnut, high yielder, variegated seed-coat color

Key findings: Attock-2019 is the prime find of the Groundnut Research Station, Attock that proves beneficial for the farming community in the Barani tract of the Punjab Province.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.5

Combining ability analysis in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for yield traits

L.A. TOKHETOVA, S.P. MAKHMADJANOV, T.V. SAVIN, and G.Z. BAIMBETOVA

SUMMARY

For assessing the combining ability, the top cross method proved more economical and less laborious compared with the diallel analysis. It also allows the breeder to obtain valuable information about the inbred lines and their hybrids for various traits. In the existing research, determining the combining ability of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hybrids took place in two regions of Kazakhstan with contrasting soil and climatic conditions. The additive and non-additive genes played a vital role in determining almost all the traits in barley. Analysis of variance showed varying significance among the barley cultivars and their hybrids and testing sites for the majority of the traits. Analysis of variance also revealed significant differences in general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) among the parental cultivars and their hybrids in barley.The predominance of additive gene interactions in controlling the traits under environmental conditions of the Aral Sea region indicates the possibility of effective selection already in the F2 generation. However, in the piedmont zone of the Almaty region, the dominant genes managed the traits, and thus, necessary to differentiate the hybrid populations, starting from the first generation, until further selection from several cycles achieved the homozygosis of loci carrying dominant genes. Barley cultivars, Rihane, WI2291/Roho/WI2269 (ICARDA), and the tester, Odessa-100 (Odessa Selection and Genetic Institute, Ukraine), showed greater practical interest and therefore, recommended for use as reliable donors in future breeding programs.

Keywords: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), variability, hybrid populations, combining ability, top-cross, analysis of variance, additive effect of genes

Key findings: Analysis of variance showed significant differences for the barley cultivars, their hybrids, and testing sites for the majority of the traits. Parental cultivars, Rihane, WI2291/Roho/WI2269, and tester Odessa-100 revealed greater practical interest with higher combining ability effects and less dependent on growing conditions that can serve as donors for improving important parameters.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.3

Rice phenotyping through grain quality traits for the development of new generation cultivars

ZH. M. MUKHINA*, N.G. TUMANYAN, E.YU. PAPULOVA, and E.YU. GNENNIY

SUMMARY

The present rice market requires a range of rice products with increased eating and nutritional values. The presented work was carried out within the framework of the breeding program for developing new rice cultivars with desirable grain quality traits based on an integrated approach, using modern methods of trait phenotyping and the genomic approach, post genomic, and cellular technologies. The latest study aimed to phenotype rice cultivars from the Unique Scientific Installation (USI) – Collection of Federal Scientific Rice Centre, Krasnodar, Russia, as sources of valuable grain quality traits. Studied traits included vitreosity, fracturing, and protein and grain amylose content. The coefficient of variation determined the variability of traits and helped identify the best cultivars as sources of valuable traits. The grain quality of harvested sample cultivars showed significant differences. The rice cultivar Thaibonnet gave the best results in terms of grain quality traits and variability. By combining low variability of technologically-tested quality traits and protein content, the rice cultivars Elbrus and Thaibonnet led all the samples. Cultivar Svetlana was characterized by high traits of vitreosity and fracturing and having less variability. The cultivars Leader and Patriot both had high protein content and low trait variability. These cultivars are recommended for use in parental crosses in breeding programs to develop rice genotypes with desirable grain quality traits and nutritional values.

Keywords: Rice breeding, genetic collection, phenotyping, grain quality traits, sources of valuable quality traits

Key findings: Through phenotyping based on rice grain quality traits, the best rice cultivars were identified among the genetic collection with low, moderately high, and high amylose content, and recommended for use in breeding programs for developing rice genotypes with desirable grain quality traits.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.2

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Rice selection criteria based on morphological and image-based phenotyping under drought- and salinity-stress conditions

A.I. SAKINAH, Y. MUSA, M. FARID, A. HAIRMANSIS, M.F. ANSHORI, and

N. NASARUDDIN

Image-based phenotyping in selecting drought- and salinity-tolerant rice lines is a potential approach to complement other selection criteria. This study aimed to determine tolerance response and selection criteria on drought and salinity stresses based on a morphological and image-based phenotyping character. The experiment, set up in a screen house of the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia, consisted of a nested randomized complete group design. The nested replication included stressed environments with two factors and three repetitions. The level of environmental stresses comprised the first factor, i.e., normal (without NaCl and PEG), salinity (60 and 120 mM NaCl), drought (10% and 20% PEG), and combination of drought-salinity (10% PEG + 60 mM NaCl). The second factor entailed the rice genotypes. Observations of the morphological and image-based phenotyping characters ensued. The results indicated that salinity stress had a wider diversity than drought stress, while the multiple stresses had a relatively stable variety compared with single stress. Morphological and image-based phenotyping character increased precision in assessing the tolerance or adaptability of rice to drought stress, salinity, and its combination. The morphological characters that can serve as rice selection criteria in a combination of drought-salinity stress included the shoot and root fresh weights and the root length. As for the image-based phenotyping character, the shoot phenotype width can serve as the selection criterion. Image-based phenotyping characters, especially the shoot phenotype area, were recommended as criteria for precise selection in assessing rice genotypes’ potential tolerance and adaptability to drought stress, salinity, and its combinations.

Key findings: The results showed that the most promising criteria for efficient rice selection under salinity-drought stress consist of the morphological characteristics, i.e., fresh shoot weight, root length, and fresh root weight. Meanwhile, the image-based phenotypic trait criterion consists of the shooting area phenotypes. The study also recommended that combining image-based morphological and phenotypic characters could improve rice tolerance or adaptation to drought, salinity, and combined stress.

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Keywords: Rice, adaptability, drought, salinity, image processing, multiple stresse

Date pubished: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.1

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Genetic diversity of maize inbred lines based on morphological traits and its association with heterosis

A.M.M. AL-NAGGAR, A.M. SOLIMAN, M.H. HUSSIEN, and A.M.H. MOHAMED

In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Zea mays, genetic diversity, inbred lines, PCA, heterosis, clustering analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.11