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Genetic Diversity in Jackfruit based on Molecular Characters in Indonesia

D. Palupi1, S.S.B. Rahayu2 and B.S. Daryono2*

      1Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia
      2Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
      *Corresponding author’s email: bs_daryono(at)mail.ugm.ac.id
      Email addresses of coauthors: dianpalupi08(at)gmail.com, ssbudirahayu7(at)yahoo.com

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Summary

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is one of the most widely cultivated fruit in Indonesia. The Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada Universtity, Indonesia has 11 provenances where jackfruitis widely grown in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to assessed variation injackfruit based on molecular marker RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Seven RAPD primers namely A-13, A-27, B-4, H-15, L-1, OPB-1, and OPD-19 generated 70 DNA bands, of which 40 were polymorphic. In this study H-15 primers produced more polymorphic fragments than the other six primers and had the highest percentage of polymorphic fragments, namely 91.7%. Similarity matrix was calculated using coefficient of Jaccard. Unweighted Pair Group Method Using Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis was performedto develop a dendogram. This data analysis was performed by NTSYS software ver. 2.1. In the present studies, jackfruit tress accessions from the eleven provenances were divided into two clusters with similarity coefficient ranging from 63.33 to 85.71%, provenance of East Java and West Java were the most closely similar (85.71%) based on molecular characters.

Key words: Jackfruit, molecular characters, genetic diversity, RAPD

Key findings: Detection of genetic differences and relationship between jackfruit from 11 provenances of Indonesia for sustainable cultivation and for conservation of plant genetic resources.

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Morphological Characters Variability of Taro in Kalimantan, Indonesia based on Phenetic Analysis Approach

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L. Oktavianingsih1,2,* E. Suharyanto3 B.S. Daryono4 and Purnomo5

      1Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathmetics and Natural Science, Universitas Mulawarman, Indonesia
      3Laboratory of Plant Structure and Development, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      4Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      5Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      *Corresponding author’s email: oktavianingsihlinda(at)yahoo.com, linda.oktavianingsih(at)ugm.ac.id
      Email addresses of coauthors:haryantobiougm(at)ugm.ac.id bs_daryono(at)mail.ugm.ac.id, purnomods(at)ugm.ac.id

Summary

Taro (Colocasia spp.) is an aroid plant which has long been cultivated in Kalimantan. This plant is considered as one of the oldest forms of cultivated plants in the region. Information about its morphological variability is needed to develop taro breeding population as future alternative crop. The aim of this research was to determine the morphological characters variability of taro in Kalimantan, Indonesia based on phenetic analysis approach. Leaf, petiole, stolon and corm samples were collected in all Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan. Similarity index was measured using the gower general similarity coefficient and cluster analysis was carried using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA). A dendrogram and principal component analysis (PCA) were constructed using Multivariate Statistical Program v.3.1 software. Around 123 accessions had been collected and evaluated using 39 morphological traits. Taro in Kalimantan consists of C. esculenta, C. affinis, Colocasia sp and Colocasia wild type. C. esculenta is the most widely used as staple food by local residents in Kalimantan. It has two botanical varieties. Fifty two from all the accessions are local cultivars that developed from C. esculenta varieties. Cluster analysis revealed Coefficient Similarity of taro ranging from 0.615 to 0.974, and divided into two major clusters. The first cluster has Colocasia sp as its single subgroup, while the second cluster has six subgroups including C. esculenta, C. affinis and Colocasia wild type. In Kalimantan, taro leaf especially petiole colour has significant influent in taro grouping.

Key words: Colocasia spp, Kalimantan, morphology, phenetic, taro, variability

Key findings: This research provides information about the characteristics of taro that are useful for plant breeding programmes and for developing taro as an alternative crop.

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Developing Screening Tools for Early-season High- and Low- Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice

S.H. JUMAA1, E.D. REDOÑA2, T. WALKER3, W. GAO and K.R. REDDY1*

      1Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.
      2Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, PO Box 197, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA.
      3Horizon Ag. LLC, 8275 Tournament Drive, Suite 255, Memphis, TN 38125, USA.
      4USDA-UVB Monitoring and Research Program, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, and Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
      *Corresponding author’s email: krreddy(at)pss.msstate.edu
      Email addresses of coauthors: shj44(at)msstate.edu, EdRedona(at)drec.msstate.edu, twalker(at)horizonseed.com, Wei.Gao(at)colostate.edu

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Summary

Temperature is one of the key abiotic stress factors that affect various stages of plant growth and development. In the US Midsouth, rice plants get exposed to variable temperatures depending on the planting date. We hypothesize that rice cultivars vary in their response to temperature, and developing a method for low- and high-temperature tolerance screening will help producers and breeders to select cultivars for management and breeding, respectively. Four rice cultivars, CL152, Bowman, Antonio, and Mermentau along with two hybrids XL 753 and CLXL 745 that were the most commonly grown in the US Midsouth were evaluated in this study for temperature tolerance. Five day/night temperature treatments, 20/12 (very low), 25/17 (low), 30/22 (optimum), 35/27 (high), and 40/32 °C (very high) were imposed after the seedling establishment, ten days after planting (DAP). Growth and developmental parameters including root and physiological parameters were recorded from plants harvested at 39 DAP. Rice cultivars and hybrids exhibited significant variability in their response to low and high temperatures. Based on total low- and high-temperature response indices, relative temperature response scores were derived. Total low-temperature response index values ranged from 18.48 to 23.15 whereas total high-temperature responses index values ranged from 42.01 to 48.82. Antonio, CLXL 745, and Mermentau were identified as sensitive to cold and heat, Bowman as sensitive to cold and moderately sensitive to heat, CL152 was moderately sensitive to cold and heat, and XL 753 was highly cold and heat tolerant cultivars/hybrids tested. These results may be useful for breeders to develop new rice cultivars which could withstand low- and high-temperature conditions during seedling stages. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate more cultivars or lines both in the controlled environments and field settings to come up with practical recommendations.

Key words: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), temperature, morpho-physiological parameters, root growth and developmental traits, SPAR, Total Drought Response index (TDRI), TLTRI, Total low temperature response index; THTRI, total high temperature response index; SD, standard deviation; r2, coefficient determination; PH, plant height; TN, tillers number; LN, leaves number, LA, leaf area; LW, leaf weight; SW, stem weight; RW, root weight; AGW, above ground weight; TW, total weight; RS, root/shoot; RL, root length; RSA, root surface area; RAD, root average diameter; RV, root volume; RNT, number of tips; RNF, number of forks; RNC, number of crossing; SPAD, chlorophyll content; Fv’/Fm’, fluorescence

Key findings: Temperature affects all shoot, root and physiological parameters. Cultivar differences were observed for low and high-temperature responses during the early-season.

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Determination of lethal dose and effect of gamma rays on growth and tuber yield of Jerusalem artichoke mutant

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P. SONGSRI1, S. JOGLOY1,2, C.C. HOLBROOK3 and D. PUANGBUT4*

      1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
      2Peanut and Jerusalem Artichoke Improvement for Functional Food Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
      3Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Tifton, Georgia, USA
      4Plant Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Udon Thani Rajabhat University, Udon Thani, Thailand
      *Corresponding author’s email: daruneepom(at)gmail.com
      Email addresses of coauthors: psongsri(at)gmail.com, sanjogloy(at)gmail.com, corley.holbrook(at)ars.usda.gov

SUMMARY

Mutation induced by radiation may result in increased variation in Jerusalem artichoke. The objective of this study was to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma rays on growth and tuber yield of two Jerusalem artichoke genotypes HEL 65 and CN 52867. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. The results demonstrated that LD50 for the genotypes HEL 65 and CN 52867 were 22 and 27 Grays (Gy), respectively. The radiation treatments did not change flower characters in either genotype. Germination percentage and plant height in both genotypes were decreased by increasing the radiation dose. In contrast, the number of branches was increased with higher gamma radiation doses (20 and 25 Gy). Gamma ray radiation at 5 Gy increased tuber yield in both Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. The present study indicated that gamma radiation might be useful for improvement of important traits such as yield in Jerusalem artichoke.
 
Key words: Helianthus tuberosus L., irradiation, plant height, fresh tuber yield

Key findings:
The LD50 for Jerusalem artichoke genotypes HEL 65 and CN 52867 were 22 and 27 Gy, respectively. Plant height and germination percentage decreased with increasing doses of gamma rays. Low dose at 5 Gy could be used to increase tuber yield of these two genotypes of Jerusalem artichoke.

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