Author Archive Kaye1214

Genotype by environment interaction analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield under rainfed conditions in Zambia

Tembo B

SUMMARY

Understanding genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is important for crop improvement because it aids in the recommendation of cultivars and the identification of appropriate production environments. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of GEI for the grain yield of wheat grown under rain-fed conditions in Zambia by using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The study was conducted in 2015/16 at Mutanda Research Station, Mt. Makulu Research Station and Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART) in Chibombo. During2016/17, the experiment was performed at Mpongwe, Mt. Makulu Research Station and GART Chibombo, Zambia. Fifty-five rain-fed wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield in a 5 × 11 alpha lattice design with two replications. Results revealed the presence of significant variation in yield across genotypes, environments, and GEI indicating the differential performance of genotypes across environments. The variance due to the effect of environments was higher than the variances due to genotypes and GEI. The variances ascribed to environments, genotypes, and GEI accounted for 45.79%, 12.96%, and 22.56% of the total variation, respectively. These results indicated that in rain-fed wheat genotypes under study, grain yield was more controlled by the environment than by genetics. AMMI biplot analysis demonstrated that E2 was the main contributor to the GEI given that it was located farthest from the origin. Furthermore, E2 was unstable yet recorded the highest yield. Genotype G47 contributed highly to the GEI sum of squares considering that it was also located far from the origin. Genotypes G12 and G18 were relatively stable because they were situated close to the origin. Their position indicated that they had minimal interaction with the environment. Genotype 47 was the highest-yielding genotype but was unstable, whereas G34 was the lowest-yielding genotype and was unstable.

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Keywords: Genotype–environment interaction, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis, genetics, stability, Triticum aestivum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.5

Improvement of the submergence stress tolerance of local South Sumatran rice through the introgression of the Sub1 gene by using marker-assisted selection

Adriansyah F, Hasmeda M, Suwignyo RA, Halimi ES, Sarimana U

SUMMARY

Submergence stress due to unpredictable soil flooding is one of the mainconstraints encountered in rainfed growing areas, especially in Southern Sumatran riparian swamps. The development of submergence-stress-tolerant cultivars through the introgression of Sub1 via marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an ideal solution. This study was carried out during 2020 at Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia, with the aim to select Sub1-introgressed lines in BC3F1 generations on the basis of MABC and to screen out the SSR markers that were unlinked to the target gene for application in subsequent background selection studies. Results revealed that almost all the backcrossed progenies segregated from the rice parental cultivars ‘FR13A’ and ‘Pegagan’. The backcrossed lines showed significantly improved submergence stress tolerance and recovery rates compared with their parents. Sub1 introgression into the BC3F1 generation was confirmed by the tightly linked Sub1 marker SUB1C173, and marker RM23915 was used for recombinant selection. These markers followed the expected marker segregation ratio in accordance with the Mendelian single gene model. In the parental polymorphism survey, 84 out of 237 SSR markers that were unlinked to the target loci were found to be available for background study. Twenty-seven backcrossed lines were selected on the basis of foreground selection. Seven plants were selected on the basis of the recombinant marker RM23915. Five backcrossed lines were further selected on the basis of submergence stress tolerance and agronomic performance.

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Keywords: Backcrossing, SSR markers, Sub1 gene, submergence tolerance, Oryza sativa L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.3

Morphophysiological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes prevailing in the core area of Punjab, Pakistan

Haq IU, Razzaq H, Haq MA, Saeed A, Hameed M, Asif M

SUMMARY

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops and the fourth most important edible crop after the three major cereal crops. It is considered as an approximately complete diet food because of its nutritional value. Its center of origin is Peru, South America. In Punjab, Pakistan, the districts of Sahiwal and Okara serve as the core areas of potato cultivation. Thirty-three potato genotypes were collected from the core areas of Punjab for characterization. The genetic diversity of potato germplasm was assessed on the basis of morphophysiological traits. This experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design and three replications. The data on 14 morphological and physiological traits were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated the presence of highly significant variation for each physiological and morphological trait. Correlation analysis showed that plant yield was highly correlated with the number of tubers per plant (0.484), tuber weight (0.648), and chlorophyll contents (0.365). By contrast, tuber dry matter exhibited a significant highly negative association with tuber moisture content (−0.753). Algorithmic hierarchical cluster analysis allocated the genotypes into four distinct clusters. Cluster 2, which was the largest cluster, comprised 18 genotypes. By contrast, cluster 4 was the smallest cluster and contained only two genotypes. The results of diversity analysis obtained through hierarchical clustering were further validated through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA provided five significant principal components that contributed 72.39% of the total variation. The principal components of the biplot explained 41.95% of the total variation, with tuber moisture content and tuber dry matter as distinct traits. Cultivars ‘SH5’, ‘SH 7-18’, ‘Simply Red,’ and ‘Ruby’ were the vertex genotypes in the biplot. Results indicated the prevalence of significant variation in the tested germplasm. Furthermore, the assessment of diversity at the molecular level is recommended for the further validation of genetic diversity.

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Keywords: Genetic diversity, Punjab, morphophysiological traits, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, Solanum tuberosum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.2

Biochemical and cytological features of onion bulbs and leaves collected from various ecogeographical origins

Nemtinov VI, Kostanchuk YN, Pashtetskiy VS, Motyleva SM, Bokhan AI, Caruso G, Katskaya AG, Timasheva LA, Pekhova OA


SUMMARY

Allium cepa L. genotypes with different ecogeographical origins revealed the highest nutritional values when grown in Crimea, Russia. However, their environmental adaptation should be further investigated. This research was performed during 2016–17 to evaluate the qualitative, antioxidant, and mineral composition characteristics of 15 onion genotypes, of which four originated from the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution, Research Institute of Agriculture, Crimea, Russia. Sweet onion genotypes exhibited high ascorbic acid contents of 11.8–27.3 mg/100 g. However, some genotypes had a narrow range of ascorbic acid content (11.8–21.1 mg/100 g) due to their different ecogeographical origins and proved to be appropriate for industrial processing because of their spicy taste. Intensely colored bulbs had a high content of polyphenols (anthocyanins), which are known to have a positive influence on human health. Electronic microscopic assays revealed the morphological characteristics of A. cepa L. genotype leaves and demonstrated the differences in epidermal structure and adaptability potential. The 12 main mineral macro- and microelements with the highest contents in onion leaves were analyzed. The hyperaccumulator genotype with the highest leaf macro- and microelement content could be used to address mineral element deficiencies in humans. In onion genotype leaves, the contents of the mineral elements followed the order of Zn > Fe > Si > Na > Р > Cl > Mo > Mg > S > Ca > Cu > K. The biochemical analysis of 13 onion cultivars showed that the majority exceeded the standard values of dry matter and sugars (mono- and disaccharides) by 13% and 46%, 11% and 48%, and 36% and 150%. In onion genotypes, leaf surface microstructure was specific, and the largest stomata corresponded to the most productive cultivars.

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Date Published: December 2021

Keywords: Onion, bulb (Allium cepa L.), ascorbic acid, leaves, electronic microscopy scanning, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, mineral elements

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.1

Genetic diversity of maize inbred lines based on morphological traits and its association with heterosis

A.M.M. AL-NAGGAR, A.M. SOLIMAN, M.H. HUSSIEN, and A.M.H. MOHAMED

In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Zea mays, genetic diversity, inbred lines, PCA, heterosis, clustering analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.11

 

Potassium and nano-copper fertilization effects on morphological and production traits of oat (Avena sativa L.)

M.N.H. AL-YASARI

SUMMARY

Potassium is the third essential nutrient of commercial fertilizers, which strengthens plants’ abilities to resist diseases and plays a vital role in increasing crop yields and overall quality. Nanofertilizers offer benefits in nutrition management through their strong potential to increase nutrient uptake efficiency and release nutrients very slowly compared with conventional fertilizers. Potassium fertilizer and nano-copper fertilization effects on oat (Avena sativa L.) morphological and yield traits have been studied in the spring season 2020–2021 at the Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Iraq. The said study conducted research with two factors, viz., potassium fertilizer levels (0, 80, and 160 kg ha-1) and nano-copper concentrations (0, 30, and 60 mg L-1) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Potassium fertilization at the rate of 160 kg ha-1 produced the highest mean number of tillers, spikes m2, 1000-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, with average values of 510.37 tillers m-2, 438.99 spikes m-2, 41.14 g, 26.52 ton ha-1 , 5.85 ton ha-1 , and 22.00%, respectively. The nano-copper application at the concentration of 60 mg L-1 followed by the values of 478.13 tillers mm-2, 418.87 spikes m-2, 36.91 g, 4.69 ton ha-1, 25.25 ton ha-1, and 22.02%, respectively. The combined use of potassium (160 kg ha-1 and nano-copper (60 mg L-1) proved more effective in boosting the oat grain yield. Results revealed that the oat exhibited more favorable vegetative and productive development features after receiving potassium and nano-copper fertilization.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Oat (Avena sativa L.), potassium, nano-copper, nutrients, fertilization, grain yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.20

Effect of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles on the antioxidant enzymes in seedlings of Triticum aestivum L

G.H. ISMAILOVA and I.V. AZIZOV

During their lifetime, plants are constantly exposed to varied environmental factors, which leads to an enhancement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant system (AOS) that controls the level of ROS and protects the plant cells. The latest study considered the changes in the activity of several high molecular weight components of the AOS—ascorbate peroxidase (APO), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (POL)—in two-week old seedlings of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under the influence of different (trivalent ferric oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles [NPs]). The study observed the activity of investigated enzymes under the influence of several NPs depends on varietal characteristics in wheat seedlings. In the tested wheat cultivars’ seedlings, ferric oxide NPs led to a sharp increase in activity of APO in the cultivars Dagdash and Gobustan. However, in the seedlings of cultivars, Sheki-1 and Mirbashir-128, a decline in the enzyme activity was observed. Concerning the influence of aluminum oxide NPs, the study affirmed that increasing the concentration of NPs leads to increase in the enzyme activity, in addition to the activity of APO. The results concluded that each plant genotype has its mechanisms for removing the harmful effects of aluminum oxide NPs, which include antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the latest findings can help serve as a basis for the wheat cultivars selection with more resistance to abiotic stress conditions.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L, nanoparticles, activity, ascorbate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.19

Morphometric and biochemical assessment of Nigella L. genotypes of European-Asian origin

V.I. NEMTINOV, Y.N. KOSTANCHUK, S.M. MOTYLEVA, O.A. PEKHOVA, L.A. TIMASHEVA, V.S. PASHTETSKIY, and A.G. KATSKAYA

SUMMARY

A recent study in 2019-2020 assessed the productivity, the quality of fatty and essential oils, and the mineral composition of eight nigella genotypes at the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution (FSBSI), Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Simferopol, Russia. Of the eight genotypes, two cultivars originated from Crimea, Russia (Nigella sativa cv. ‘Krymchanka,’ and Nigella damascena cv. ‘Yalita’), and one each from six European-Asian countries, i.e., Dagestan, Uzbekistan, and Sweden (Nigella sativa), Pakistan and India (Nigella indica), and Belgium (Nigella damascena). The Russian nigella genotypes served as control. Genotypes from three European-Asian countries (Sweden, Pakistan, and Dagestan) distinguished from the rest by their highest seed productivity, i.e., 1.0-1.6 g plant-1, which was 1.7-2.7 times higher than the control cultivar ‘Krymchanka.’ The seed productivity of the genotype N. damascena cv. ‘Yalita’ control was 1.5 times greater than the nigella genotype from Belgium. The N. indica produced the highest fatty oil content (29.9%), which exceeded two other species, i.e., N. sativa and N. damascena by 16%–22%. Fatty oils of nigella also contained essential oils of 0.5% for N. sativa and 1.2% for N. damascena. The essential oil of N. sativa contained dominant components, such as, p-cymene (53.5%) and thymoquinone (19.2%), while N. damascena contained p-cymol (82.2%) and other principal components. The identified samples with the maximum accumulation of fatty and essential oils, and macro and microelements can be used to treat and replenish the deficient elements in the human body. Nigella genotype samples exhibited high accumulation of microelements, viz., potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and molybdenum in the leaves and seeds.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Nigella genotypes, leaves, seeds, fatty acids and essential oils, mineral elements, submicroscopic scanning, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.18

Seed priming effects on morphological traits of Amaranthus hypochondriacus under optimal and low temperatures

J. FENG, М.S. GINS, and V.C. GINS

The recent research evaluated the effects of growth stimulant seed treatment on the morphological traits of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. cv. ‗Krepysh‘ grown under optimal and low positive temperature conditions. The seeds were continuously soaked for 4 h in five different solutions of growth stimulants, i.e., salicylic acid (SAA – 138 mg/L), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 – 10 and 50 mmol/L), calcium chloride (CaCl2 – 3000 mg/L), succinic acid (SUA – 500 mg/L), and control (distilled water). The stimulant-primed seeds were germinated at optimal temperature (23°C) and continued to germinate at low temperatures of 10°C (T10) and 23°C (T23). The results showed that seed germination rates viz., germination potential (GP), germination rate (GR), germination index (GI), viability index (VI), and seed vigor index (SVI), were significantly improved with seed quality potential compared with the control. Under low positive temperature, seeds treated with succinic acid, H2O2, and CaCl2 had the most significant effects on improving seed quality and induced cold resistance in the seeds. The morphological indicators of amaranth seedlings, i.e., biomass, hypocotyl, and root length, were also significantly improved with seed treatment by growth stimulants. Priming of amaranth seeds with hydrogen peroxide and succinic acid showed a greater increase in seedlings‘ biomass at room (23°C) and low (10°C) temperatures. The seed treatment with SUA and SAA significantly contributed to enhancing the hypocotyl length. The amaranth roots achieved maximum length after seed treatment with SUA and CaCl2. In general, the seed treatment effects on seedling’s biomass under chilling stress were associated with the potential of inducing cold tolerance in seedlings

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., seed soaking, germination, chilling stress, salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, succinic acid

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.17

Seed priming effects on seed quality and antioxidant system in the seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor L

E.M. GINS

SUMMARY

Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. ‘Valentina’ leaves are a promising source of dietary food supplements (DFS) and are used to prepare tea drinks that improve human health in Russia. Amaranth is a small-seeded crop, and the seed mass differs significantly, which leads to unfriendly shoots and a decrease in the potential productivity of the plant biomass. Pre-sowing treatment with growth stimulants can improve its seed quality. The study aimed to improve the seed quality, the morpho-physiological parameters, and the antioxidant properties of amaranth seedlings grown from seeds treated with plant growth stimulants at the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, Federal Scientific Vegetable Center (FSBSI FSVC), Moscow, Russia. For seed treatments, water solutions of salicylic acid (SA – 138 mg/L), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 – 5 mM), succinic acid (ScA – 500 mg/L), calcium chloride (CaCl2 – 3000 mg/L), and gibberellic acid (GA3 – 300 mg/L) were used. Researchers germinated the seeds first in petri dishes in natural light at a daytime temperature of 23±2°C for seven days. Determining amaranthine, chlorophyll, and carotenoid content used generally accepted methods. Pre-sowing treatment of large and small fractions of amaranth seeds with GA3, ScA, and CaCl2 improved the seed quality, whereas seed treatment of SA and H2O2 reduced the seed quality. Recording of antioxidants (amaranthine and carotenoids) and total chlorophyll content accumulation in seedlings grown from the treated seeds followed. The levels of amaranthine and photosynthetic pigments decreased in the seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. Valentina seeds with ScA, CaCl2, and GA3 treatments, while the seedling’s biomass exceeded that of control, which suggests that these chemicals act as growth regulators. The negative effect of SA on the viability of large (LF) and small (SF) amaranth seeds showed significant reductions in the morphometric indicators. It may be due to oxidative stress, enhancing amaranthine content in the cotyledonary leaves of seedlings.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. Valentina, seeds, seedlings, growth regulators salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, succinic acid, calcium chloride, gibberellic acid, amaranthine, carotenoids, photosynthetic pigments

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.16