Author Archive Kaye1214

Genetic variability and multivariate studies on the grain physical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces

M.H. RANI, M. FARUQUEE, M.S.R. KHANOM, and S.N. BEGUM

Thirty rice landraces were evaluated during the 2020 wet season for the estimation of the genetic variability of six grain physical properties, viz. grain length (GL), grain breadth (GB), milled grain length (MGL), milled grain breadth (MGB), milled grain length breadth ratio (MGL/MGB), and 1000-grain weight (TGW), at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture Substation, Sunamganj, Bangladesh. The relative contribution of these traits to variability was estimated by using principal component analysis (PCA), and the landraces were clustered by using Mahalanobis distance (D2)statistics. The TGW and MGL/MGB ratio exhibited high estimates of the phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation. The high broad-sense heritability and genetic advance of all the traits indicated that the environmental effect had a weak involvement in the expression of these traits. PCA revealed six principal components, among which two were significant and contributed up to 96.9% of the total variance cumulatively. GL, GB, MGL, and TGW contributed to PC1 to create the variation among the landraces, whereas MGL/MGB ratio, GL, and MGL contributed to PC2. The landraces were grouped into six clusters. Cluster analysis revealed that the maximum and minimum intracluster distances were found in cluster III (235.11) and cluster VI (0.00), respectively. The longest intercluster distance was found between clusters IV and VI, and the shortest distance was found between clusters I and III. The maximum mean values for GL and TGW were observed in cluster VI. The mean values for GB and MGB were highest in cluster V, whereas the MGL/MGB ratio and MGL were highest in cluster II. ‘Madhumala’/‘Sada Madhumala’ and ‘Pankhuraj’ could be used in hybridization programs to exploit maximum heterosis for rice grain size and shape and for the direct selection of superior quality traits because these traits are less affected by the environment than other traits.

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Date published: March 2022

Keywords: Rice landrace, heritability, principal component analysis, clustering

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.1

Evaluation of Cowpea Cultivars from Southwet Maluku-Indonesia under Different Environments based on Morphological Characteristics

R.L. KARUWAL1,2, SUHARSONO3*, A. TJAHJOLEKSONO3, and N. HANIF4

      1Study Program of Plant Biology, Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680 Indonesia
      2Study Program of Biology Education, Pattimura University, Ambon 97233 Indonesia
      3Departement of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University 16680, Indonesia
      4Departement of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
      *Corresponding author’s email: sony-sh(at)apps.ipb.ac.id
      E-mail addresses of coauthors: karuwalritha8(at)gmail.com; aristj(at)apps.ipb.ac.id, nhanif(at)apps.ipb.ac.id

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Summary

Cowpea is one of the crops that have a lot of potential to be utilized as raw food resource in the Southwest Maluku district. The objective of this study was to evaluate local cowpea cultivars from Southwest Maluku under different locations based on morphological characters. The research was conducted in Ambon and Bogor using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. As many as seven local cultivars and three cultivars from ILETRI were evaluated. Observations were conducted on 18 morphological characters. The results showed that morphological characters were significantly affected by cultivars on each location. In general: KM3, KM4, and KM6 cultivars have the highest value in some morphology characters. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the number of nodes with number of leaves followed by seed number plant-1 with seed weight plant-1 and loci number pod-1 with seed number pod-1 . Principal component analysis showed that there were nine principal components and clustering in two clusters. The local cultivars have the highest genetic potential in this study and could be selected as plant materials in future plant breeding program.

Key words: Different environments, local cowpea, Southwest Maluku, morphological characters

Key findings: Cowpea cultivar KM3 was the best genotype at both locations i.e., Ambon and Bogor, Indonesia. It also showed similar stability in some characters and almost equal with cultivars from ILETRI in these locations.

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Comparison of Yield Components of Sugarcane Varieties Grown under Natural Short- and Long-term Water-logged Conditions in Thailand

CH. PALACHAI1, P. SONGSRI1,2 and N. JONGRUNGKLANG1,2*
1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2Northeast Thailand Cane and Sugar Research Center, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*Corresponding author’s email: nuntawootjrk(at)gmail.com
Email addresses of coauthors: patcharinso(at)kku.ac.th, chuleeporn_p(at)kkumail.com

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Summary

Against the background of a changing climate, water logging is a major problem for sugarcane production and results in reduced productivity. Various sugarcane genotypes cultivated in waterlogged areas show different acclimations of yield component traits. Understanding such traits under these conditions could be useful in the selection of suitable sugarcane cultivars. Therefore, the objectives of this study was to evaluate cane yield and millable cane, stalk weight, stalk length, and sugar yield of 12 sugarcane varieties in upland (short water logging period) and lowland (long water logging period) areas. Yield, sugar yield, stalk length, stalk diameter, millable cane, and weight per stalk were measured at 12 months after planting. Under both conditions, the tested sugarcane genotypes were differed in terms of yield, millable cane, single stalk weight, stalk length, stalk diameter, and sugar yield. Long water logging periods induced cane yield reduction and decreased single stalk weight. KK3, Kps01-12, and TBy28-0941 showed consistently high productivity across short and long water logging conditions. A positive correlation between single stalk weight and cane yield was existed, and this trait could be used as criteria selection for high productive cultivars under flooding conditions. Millable stalk number could also be used as a surrogate trait under these conditions.

Key words: Single stalk weight, millable cane, stalk length, flooding, sugar yield

Key findings: The twelve sugarcane genotypes used in this study were significantly differed in terms of yield, yield components, and sugar yield under short-term and long-term water logging conditions. Long periods of water logging result in lower cane yield, sugar yield, single stalk weight and stalk length compared to those obtained under short-term water logging. Single stalk weight contributes to high cane yield and could be used as a selection characteristic for improving cane productivity under water-logged field conditions.

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Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield of F4 Populations for Developing New Type of Upland Rice

R. HERAWATI*, MASDAR and ALNOPRI
Crop Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Indonesia
*Corresponding author’s email: reny.herawati70(at)gmail.com, reny.herawati(at)unib.ac.id
Email addresses of coauthors: masdar.msdr(at)gmail.com, alnopri_bkl(at)yahoo.co.id

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Summary

High production of rice is closely related to high yield component characters namely the number of filled grains per panicle or the density of grains per panicle. These characters are complex and greatly determine yield. These traits are also controlled by many genes whose expression is influenced by environmental conditions. This research aims to study genetic diversity and inheritance patterns of rice yield characteristics in the F4population and to obtain the best genotypes from the selection. The materials in this research were 190 F3 generation seed numbers from the pedigree selection which consisted of 24 field numbers resulting from single crosses between local varieties (Bugis and Sriwijaya) with both IR7858-1 and IR148 (N22) that are tolerant to drought. Our research used an augmented design with four parents as check varieties. The research showed that the grain yield of F4 populations was polygenic and controlled by additive gene actions. The heritability value and coefficient of genetic diversity for grain yield were classified as moderate and high. The intensity of differentials selection by 10 percent based on the grain weight/hill, increased the middle value of other observed characters, like panicle length by 20.9%, the total number of grain by 48.4%, the filled grain number per panicle by 59.7%, and grain weight/hill by 40.9%. However, it decreased percentage of empty grain/panicle by 87.6%. Selection on higher filled grains and dense panicles, regardless of panicle length should be considered for developing the new plant type for upland rice with high yield.


Key words: Grain yield, F4 population, heritability, genetic variability

Key findings: Studying the inheritance systems of characters to form the desired character is an important step in segregating populations. Selection based on high grain yield in the F4 generation is expected to be significant in the development of high yield new type of upland rice.

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Genetic Diversity in Jackfruit based on Molecular Characters in Indonesia

D. Palupi1, S.S.B. Rahayu2 and B.S. Daryono2*

      1Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia
      2Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
      *Corresponding author’s email: bs_daryono(at)mail.ugm.ac.id
      Email addresses of coauthors: dianpalupi08(at)gmail.com, ssbudirahayu7(at)yahoo.com

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Summary

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is one of the most widely cultivated fruit in Indonesia. The Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada Universtity, Indonesia has 11 provenances where jackfruitis widely grown in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to assessed variation injackfruit based on molecular marker RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Seven RAPD primers namely A-13, A-27, B-4, H-15, L-1, OPB-1, and OPD-19 generated 70 DNA bands, of which 40 were polymorphic. In this study H-15 primers produced more polymorphic fragments than the other six primers and had the highest percentage of polymorphic fragments, namely 91.7%. Similarity matrix was calculated using coefficient of Jaccard. Unweighted Pair Group Method Using Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis was performedto develop a dendogram. This data analysis was performed by NTSYS software ver. 2.1. In the present studies, jackfruit tress accessions from the eleven provenances were divided into two clusters with similarity coefficient ranging from 63.33 to 85.71%, provenance of East Java and West Java were the most closely similar (85.71%) based on molecular characters.

Key words: Jackfruit, molecular characters, genetic diversity, RAPD

Key findings: Detection of genetic differences and relationship between jackfruit from 11 provenances of Indonesia for sustainable cultivation and for conservation of plant genetic resources.

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Morphological Characters Variability of Taro in Kalimantan, Indonesia based on Phenetic Analysis Approach

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L. Oktavianingsih1,2,* E. Suharyanto3 B.S. Daryono4 and Purnomo5

      1Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathmetics and Natural Science, Universitas Mulawarman, Indonesia
      3Laboratory of Plant Structure and Development, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      4Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      5Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
      *Corresponding author’s email: oktavianingsihlinda(at)yahoo.com, linda.oktavianingsih(at)ugm.ac.id
      Email addresses of coauthors:haryantobiougm(at)ugm.ac.id bs_daryono(at)mail.ugm.ac.id, purnomods(at)ugm.ac.id

Summary

Taro (Colocasia spp.) is an aroid plant which has long been cultivated in Kalimantan. This plant is considered as one of the oldest forms of cultivated plants in the region. Information about its morphological variability is needed to develop taro breeding population as future alternative crop. The aim of this research was to determine the morphological characters variability of taro in Kalimantan, Indonesia based on phenetic analysis approach. Leaf, petiole, stolon and corm samples were collected in all Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan. Similarity index was measured using the gower general similarity coefficient and cluster analysis was carried using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA). A dendrogram and principal component analysis (PCA) were constructed using Multivariate Statistical Program v.3.1 software. Around 123 accessions had been collected and evaluated using 39 morphological traits. Taro in Kalimantan consists of C. esculenta, C. affinis, Colocasia sp and Colocasia wild type. C. esculenta is the most widely used as staple food by local residents in Kalimantan. It has two botanical varieties. Fifty two from all the accessions are local cultivars that developed from C. esculenta varieties. Cluster analysis revealed Coefficient Similarity of taro ranging from 0.615 to 0.974, and divided into two major clusters. The first cluster has Colocasia sp as its single subgroup, while the second cluster has six subgroups including C. esculenta, C. affinis and Colocasia wild type. In Kalimantan, taro leaf especially petiole colour has significant influent in taro grouping.

Key words: Colocasia spp, Kalimantan, morphology, phenetic, taro, variability

Key findings: This research provides information about the characteristics of taro that are useful for plant breeding programmes and for developing taro as an alternative crop.

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Developing Screening Tools for Early-season High- and Low- Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice

S.H. JUMAA1, E.D. REDOÑA2, T. WALKER3, W. GAO and K.R. REDDY1*

      1Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.
      2Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, PO Box 197, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA.
      3Horizon Ag. LLC, 8275 Tournament Drive, Suite 255, Memphis, TN 38125, USA.
      4USDA-UVB Monitoring and Research Program, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, and Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
      *Corresponding author’s email: krreddy(at)pss.msstate.edu
      Email addresses of coauthors: shj44(at)msstate.edu, EdRedona(at)drec.msstate.edu, twalker(at)horizonseed.com, Wei.Gao(at)colostate.edu

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Summary

Temperature is one of the key abiotic stress factors that affect various stages of plant growth and development. In the US Midsouth, rice plants get exposed to variable temperatures depending on the planting date. We hypothesize that rice cultivars vary in their response to temperature, and developing a method for low- and high-temperature tolerance screening will help producers and breeders to select cultivars for management and breeding, respectively. Four rice cultivars, CL152, Bowman, Antonio, and Mermentau along with two hybrids XL 753 and CLXL 745 that were the most commonly grown in the US Midsouth were evaluated in this study for temperature tolerance. Five day/night temperature treatments, 20/12 (very low), 25/17 (low), 30/22 (optimum), 35/27 (high), and 40/32 °C (very high) were imposed after the seedling establishment, ten days after planting (DAP). Growth and developmental parameters including root and physiological parameters were recorded from plants harvested at 39 DAP. Rice cultivars and hybrids exhibited significant variability in their response to low and high temperatures. Based on total low- and high-temperature response indices, relative temperature response scores were derived. Total low-temperature response index values ranged from 18.48 to 23.15 whereas total high-temperature responses index values ranged from 42.01 to 48.82. Antonio, CLXL 745, and Mermentau were identified as sensitive to cold and heat, Bowman as sensitive to cold and moderately sensitive to heat, CL152 was moderately sensitive to cold and heat, and XL 753 was highly cold and heat tolerant cultivars/hybrids tested. These results may be useful for breeders to develop new rice cultivars which could withstand low- and high-temperature conditions during seedling stages. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate more cultivars or lines both in the controlled environments and field settings to come up with practical recommendations.

Key words: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), temperature, morpho-physiological parameters, root growth and developmental traits, SPAR, Total Drought Response index (TDRI), TLTRI, Total low temperature response index; THTRI, total high temperature response index; SD, standard deviation; r2, coefficient determination; PH, plant height; TN, tillers number; LN, leaves number, LA, leaf area; LW, leaf weight; SW, stem weight; RW, root weight; AGW, above ground weight; TW, total weight; RS, root/shoot; RL, root length; RSA, root surface area; RAD, root average diameter; RV, root volume; RNT, number of tips; RNF, number of forks; RNC, number of crossing; SPAD, chlorophyll content; Fv’/Fm’, fluorescence

Key findings: Temperature affects all shoot, root and physiological parameters. Cultivar differences were observed for low and high-temperature responses during the early-season.

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Determination of lethal dose and effect of gamma rays on growth and tuber yield of Jerusalem artichoke mutant

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P. SONGSRI1, S. JOGLOY1,2, C.C. HOLBROOK3 and D. PUANGBUT4*

      1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
      2Peanut and Jerusalem Artichoke Improvement for Functional Food Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
      3Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Tifton, Georgia, USA
      4Plant Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Udon Thani Rajabhat University, Udon Thani, Thailand
      *Corresponding author’s email: daruneepom(at)gmail.com
      Email addresses of coauthors: psongsri(at)gmail.com, sanjogloy(at)gmail.com, corley.holbrook(at)ars.usda.gov

SUMMARY

Mutation induced by radiation may result in increased variation in Jerusalem artichoke. The objective of this study was to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma rays on growth and tuber yield of two Jerusalem artichoke genotypes HEL 65 and CN 52867. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. The results demonstrated that LD50 for the genotypes HEL 65 and CN 52867 were 22 and 27 Grays (Gy), respectively. The radiation treatments did not change flower characters in either genotype. Germination percentage and plant height in both genotypes were decreased by increasing the radiation dose. In contrast, the number of branches was increased with higher gamma radiation doses (20 and 25 Gy). Gamma ray radiation at 5 Gy increased tuber yield in both Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. The present study indicated that gamma radiation might be useful for improvement of important traits such as yield in Jerusalem artichoke.
 
Key words: Helianthus tuberosus L., irradiation, plant height, fresh tuber yield

Key findings:
The LD50 for Jerusalem artichoke genotypes HEL 65 and CN 52867 were 22 and 27 Gy, respectively. Plant height and germination percentage decreased with increasing doses of gamma rays. Low dose at 5 Gy could be used to increase tuber yield of these two genotypes of Jerusalem artichoke.

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Comparative biochemical composition of the sweet cherry fruits

S.M. MOTYLEVA, A.A. BORISOVA, I.M. KULIKOV, and T.A. TUMAEVA

SUMMARY

Comparative studies on the complex biochemical indicators of the fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were conducted as a new focus, to recognize their genotypes. Eight sweet cherry cultivars were procured from the Federal Horticultural Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology, and Nursery (FSBSO ARHCBAN), Moscow, Russia, namely, Moskvoretskaya, Chermashnaya, Italyanka, Iput, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Sinyavskaya, and Podarok Ryazani, and two cultivars, i.e., Regina and Krasa Kuban from Azerbaijan and the Southern Federal District of Russia (Republic of Crimea), respectively. The studies were conducted through traditional (potentiometry, refractometry, and spectrophotometry) and modern analytical (energy-dispersive spectrometry, gas chromate-massspectrometry) methods. Considerable genetic variations were detected among the evaluated cultivars of the sweet cherry for all studied traits. The most harmonized taste from the balanced content of acids and sugars in the fruits is noted with the sweet cherry cultivars, i.e., Sinyavskaya, Fatezh, Krasa Kubani, Podarok Ryazani, and Regina. Cultivars Italyanka, Sinyavskaya, and Podarok Ryazani have 2.3, 3.5, and 4.2 times more, respectively, phenolic compounds than the cultivar Krasa Kubani. The following decreasing order of the accumulation of various macro and micro-elements was observed in the sweet cherry fruits, i.e., K > P > Mо > Mg > Ca > Se > Co > Mn > Fe > Zn. The comparison of sweet cherry fruits‟ metabolomic profiles revealed the composition of organic and phenolic acids, sugar alcohols, carbohydrates and their derivatives, amino acids, and other compounds. In total, 41 individual compounds were determined. In sweet cherry fruits, carbohydrates are presented by monosaccharides, which are the components of a healthy diet, and their derivatives. Among organic acids, the most significant differences were detected in the presence of arabinoic, fumaric, and erythro-pentonic acids; fatty acids found in sweet cherries are valuable for human nutrition. The biologically active substances, i.e., kojic acid and myo-inositol, were also detected in the sweet cherry cultivars, Moskvoretskaya, Fatezh, Podarok Ryazani, Sinyavskaya, Krasa Kubani, and Regina. The metabolome is an important biochemical indicator of the plant’s phenotype and it allows to reveal hidden differences in their genotypes.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Prunus avium L. fruits, promising varieties, biologically active substances, mineral composition, metabolites

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.12

Integrated corn cultivation technology based on morphology, drone imaging, and participatory plant breeding

M. FARID, F. DJUFRY, A. YASSI, M.F. ANSHORI, Y. MUSA, NASARUDDIN, M. AQIL, A.F. ADZIMA, H. ISWOYO, M.H. JAMIL, and S. PATI

SUMMARY

The evaluation of a cultivation technology would be more efficient when the technology assessment is based on various approaches like conventional morphological approaches, the use of drone’s normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) imaging, and participatory plant breeding (PPB). The recent study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the combination of morphological approaches, drone imaging, and participatory plant breeding in selecting the best corn cultivation technology package. This research conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with one factor from March to December 2021 at the Village Taroang, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The factor is 40 cultivation technology packages. The treatments were replicated three times, thus having 120 experimental units. For plant participation, the investigations were conducted with 56 farmers on their corn fields through quantitative surveys in the targeted area. For NDVI, the observation was recorded 70 days after planting using a DJI Inspire two unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a multi-spectral camera. Based on the results of the study, the combined strategy of different approaches like morphophysiological, drone’s NDVI, and participatory plant breeding is found effective in evaluating the corn production technology. The yield, plant height, percentage of net yield, and cob weight were good selection criteria for the morphology approach in evaluating corn cultivation. The NDVI could be recommended in helping the morphology evaluation and PPB, especially in a large-scale evaluation. Based on a combined assessment of the different approaches, the maize cultivar Pioneer-27 combined with ‘Legowo’ spacing technology, NPK fertilizer ratio of 200:100:50, KNO3 at the rate of 25 kg, and application of biofertilizer ‘Eco farming’ @ 5 cc L-1, was recommended as the best corn production technology package in the Village Taroang, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Corn cultivation, NDVI, PPB, morphological approach, multivariate analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.5