Author Archive Kaye1214

Drought stress effects on resistant gene expression, growth, and yield traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

A.N. FARHOOD, M.Y. MERHIJ, and Z.H. AL-FATLAWI

SUMMARY

The study comprised two experiments that were carried out for two consecutive years (2019–2020 and 2020–2021) at the Agricultural Research Station, Babil Governorate, Iraq. In the first experiment, seven wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, viz., Iraq, Ezz, Abba-99, Furat, Sham-6, N-70, and Tamoz, were studied for most drought- tolerant genes in 2019–2020. During this year, three droughttolerant wheat cultivars, i.e., Iraq, Tamoz, and Abba-99, were selected having the most droughttolerant genes. In the second experiment, the three selected drought-tolerant wheat cultivars under three different drought stress conditions (D-1, D-2, and D-3) were studied during 2020–2021 in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications using a split-plot arrangement. The study aimed to determine the impact of drought effects on the expression of drought-resistant genes, growth, and yield traits in wheat. The results showed that wheat cultivars differed in their possession of drought-resistant genes (ABC4, GPAT, GBSS1, and umc1283), and the bands appeared in cultivars, Iraq, Tamoz, and Abba-99, while the rest of the four cultivars had lost one or two genes. Cultivar Iraq was distinguished as the most drought-tolerant genotypes, by having an increased relative expression of genes, ABC4 and GPAT, compared with other cultivars. The D-3 – drought stress condition caused a significant reduction in the biological and grain yield, and harvest index, with a decrease of 38.85%, 12.60%, and 29.83%, respectively. Cultivar Iraq was the least affected for plant height, flag leaf area, tillers meter2, biological and grain yield, and harvest index when increasing drought severity, and these traits decreased by 16.96%, 24.08%, 44.17%, 28.08%, 15.10%, and 15.29%, respectively. Results authenticated wheat cultivars differed in the expression of drought-resistant genes, and drought resistance is largely controlled by genes.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), drought stress, drought-resistant genes, genes expression, growth traits, grain yield, and related traits

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.5

Genetic diversity of Bak-kala (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. SM.) in Aceh Province, Indonesia

SAUDAH, ZUMAIDAR, DARUSMAN, FITMAWATI, D.I. ROSLIM , E. JULIANTARI, ERNILASARI, and K. WALIL

SUMMARY

Torch ginger – bak-kala (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.SM.) already has been proven an effective traditional medicine by tribes in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Solid primary evidence for the torch ginger, bak-kala’s medicinal properties include the healing effects experienced by the traditional tribes in Aceh, when treated for illnesses, such as, cough, fever, and sprains. Likewise, it has been proven to be a use for food ingredients, i.e., vegetables and spices to enhance the taste of food. Much of the available documented information focused on its biochemical and pharmacological aspects. Even though the utilization of bak-kala resources is mainly at the level of diversity, there is no information on its genetic diversity in Aceh. The high intensity of bak-kala utilization is not simultaneous with information on its genetic diversity. On the other hand, many uses of bak-kala are specific for certain accessions with particular benefits. The study aimed to create a classification system for bak-kala variations based on inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers and to provide information on the genetic diversity of bak-kala in Aceh Province. The 35 accessions were divided into eight populations based on the geographical locations from which they were collected. Data were recorded and analyzed using 10 ISSR primers with 77 total bands. The molecular characters divided the accessions into four major groups. As revealed by expected heterozygosity (He), genetic variability among the population showed that the Simeulu population possessed a greater level of variability than other populations. The results of the analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation within the population was higher (60%) than the genetic variation among populations (40%). The studies can be used to plan conservation strategies, optimal utilization of the species, and crop improvement programs in the future.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Bak-kala (Etlingera elatior), diversity, genetic variability, germplasm, ISSR markers, population structure

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.4

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Genetic analysis and heterotic studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) hybrids for fruit yield and its related traits.

A. JAVED, N.N. NAWAB, S. GOHAR, A. AKRAM, K. JAVED, M. SARWAR, M.I. TABASSUM, N. AHMAD, and A.R. MALLHI

A study was conducted to determine the types of gene action of different yield-related traits in tomato and the combining ability in four advanced lines. The heterotic response in tomato hybrids was also assessed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among all the traits. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all chosen traits were computed using Griffing’s approach of diallel. Combining ability revealed the additive and non-additive genetic effects for all selected traits of advanced lines. T-1360 was found as a good general combiner for the number of cluster plant-1, average fruit weight, number of flowers cluster-1, fruit length, number of fruit cluster-1, and yield. The variance of the GCA to SCA ratio was found less than 0.5 for each trait, which confirmed the presence of non-additive gene action. The results revealed higher magnitudes of phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) than the genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV). The high magnitudes of heritability (72% to 92%) and genetic advance (36.63% to 139.72%) were found for the number of cluster plant-1, average fruit weight (g), the number of fruits cluster-1, and yield. Among all crosses, the cross ST-100 × T-1360 showed maximum positive heterosis over the mid parent (566.6%) and the better parent (455.5%). The identified tomato genotypes can be used further in different tomato breeding programs to improve fruit yield and other yield-related traits.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: GCA and SCA, heritability, heterosis, Solanum lycopersicum L.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.3

Genetic analysis of upland rice F4 populations (Sileso × Ciherang) for phenological and yield related traits

M. SYAHRIL, SYUKRI, D.S. SIREGAR, and MURDIANI

SUMMARY

Climate change increases the drought-affected areas, which challenge the breeders to develop adaptive and drought-tolerant rice cultivars. The study aimed to determine heritability, and gene action controlling of various traits in upland rice F4 populations derived from the cross, Sileso (high yielding and drought tolerant) × Ciherang (early maturing), and to obtain high-yielding and earlymaturing rice lines. The upland rice F4 populations, along with parental and check cultivars, were planted in augmented design from July to November 2021 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Samudra University, Langsa, Indonesia. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the check cultivars for the traits, such as, panicle length, productive tillers, filled grains per panicle, and grain yield per plant. The F4 population families revealed significant differences for the maturity, filled grain per panicle, and grain yield per plant, which confirmed greater genetic diversity, and proved potential to produce the best lines. The check vs. family interactions also exhibited significant differences for all the characters. Results revealed high heritability for the traits, i.e., maturity, filled grain per panicle, and grain yield per plant. The inheritance of all the characters was controlled by the additive gene action. Inheritance of the majority of the traits was polygenic except plant height and productive tillers. The selected and promising upland rice F4 populations revealed reduced plant height, maturity, and increased yield per plant compared with its rice parental cultivar ‘Sileso’.

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Date Published: September 2022

Keywords: Upland rice, drought tolerance, heritability, gene action

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.2

Genetic diversity among the Philippine traditional maize (Zea mays L.) populations based on SSR markers.

P.R. GUEVARRA, J.F. PARIL, R.R. GARDOCE, A.M. SALAZAR, and A.O. CANAMA-SALINAS

Summary

This paper reports the first genetic diversity analysis of Philippine traditional maize populations performed through a cost-effective DNA pooling strategy. The diversity among selected 100 traditional maize populations collected from Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao was evaluated using twenty simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers at the Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. A total of 138 bands ranging from two to 12 bands per primer were detected. The average number of polymorphic alleles, polymorphism rate, effective multiplex ratio, marker index, resolving power, and expected heterozygosity are 6.283, 87.17%, 5.798, 4.104, 15.897, and 0.658, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) varied between 0.141 to 0.848, with an average value of 0.620. A dendrogram was constructed with a dissimilarity coefficient ranging from 0.14 to 0.55 and a mean dissimilarity index of 0.425. Cluster analysis revealed 13 groups based on the result of Approximately Unbiased (AU) p-values from 10,000 bootstrap iterations. The cluster analysis enabled the classification of populations with ambiguous places of origin. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher within-population diversity (70%) than among-population diversity (30%) with PhiPT (pairwise genetic differentiation metric) of 0.298 (P = 0.001). These results revealed the significant diversity of traditional maize populations in the Philippines and the power of SSR markers in diversity and cluster analyses despite the age of this marker technology. These findings will aid plant breeders in developing approaches towards knowledgeable and efficient execution of breeding programs using traditional maize populations.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Traditional maize, Philippine germplasm, cluster analysis, SSR markers, AMOVA, bootstrapping

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.1

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SABRAO JOURNAL of BREEDING and GENETICS Volume 50 Number 3 SEPTEMBER 2018

ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND NATURAL ZEOLITE EFFECTS ON MORPHOMETRIC TRAITS OF BRASSICA NAPUS L. POLLEN GRAINS

T. ZUBKOVA, S. MOTYLEVA, D. VINOGRADOV, V. GULIDOVA, and O. DUBROVINA

SUMMARY

Morphological characteristics of Brassica napus pollen (polar axis, equatorial diameter, shape index, pattern of perforation of exines, and perimeter of perforation zones) were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy JEOL JSM-6390. The B. napus seeds were grown under various agroecological conditions, i.e., mineral fertilizer (NPK 60:60:60 t hasup>-1) separately and together with zeolite, chicken droppings (10 t ha-1) separately and together with zeolite (5 t hasup>-1), and control (without fertilizers) from 2018 to 2020 at the Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia. It was found that pollen grains of B. napus had an oblong-ellipsoid shape. In the polar view, the pollen grains were circular with straight sides, though in the equatorial view, elliptical. For the polar axis of the pollen grains in fertilizer application treatments, the minimum values ranged from 24.59 to 27.76 µm, whereas the maximum readings were 40.13 to 42.12 µm compared with control (21.56 µm, 41.52 µm). The coefficient of variation for fertilizer applications ranged from 8.86% to 14.10% compared with control (14.85%) for the polar axis. For the equatorial axis of the pollen grains, the minimum values varied from 11.61 to 15.63 µm, whereas the range for the maximum values was 19.74 to 23.96 µm compared with the control (13.63 µm, 21.88 µm). For the equatorial axis among the fertilizer applications, the coefficient of variation varied from 8.47% to 12.01% compared with the control (18.35%). For the perimeter of the exine perforation of the pollen grains, the minimum values ranged from 1.68 to 1.95 µm, whereas the maximum values varied from 4.34 to 7.12 µm compared with the control (1.34 µm, 5.68 µm). The coefficient of variation varied from 24.48% to 33.19% compared with the control (34.78%) for the perimeter of exine perforation. The shape index of the pollen grains of the B. napus varied from 1.96 to 2.07 µm (correct unit of measure?) compared with the control (2.03 µm). Overall, with the use of organic fertilizers and zeolite, the morphometric parameters of pollen grains were significantly enhanced.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Brassica napus, micromorphology, pollen grains, analytical scanning electron microscopy, agroecological experience

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.15

Marine algae extracts, and nano fertilizer with zinc and copper effects on growth and macro- and micronutrients composition of apple trees

KH.A. KAREEM, Z.O.O. ALOJANY, and A.S.A. AL-JANABI

SUMMARY

Bioactive compound marine algae extracts (MAE), nano-zinc (nZn) and nano-copper (nCu) fertilizer effects on growth traits, and macro– and micronutrient composition in apple trees were studied. The recent study was carried out in 2021 at the laboratories of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq, and Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq. In the conducted experiment, the treatments comprise the foliar application of marine algae extracts with two concentrations at 0.5 and 1 ml L-1, nZn at 1 and 2 g L-1, nCu at 1 and 2 g L-1, and a control in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that apple trees treated with marine algae extracts were superior in enhancing the shoot length, diameter, leaves per tree, leaf area, leaf dry matter, and percentages of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and copper (Cu). The other two treatments (nZn and nCu) also showed highest values for some characteristics and moderate values for other traits that excelled the control treatment. Zinc percentage was significant in apple tree leaves when treated with two concentrations of nZn (1, 2 g L-1 ) reaching 1.89% and 1.97%, respectively. The highest Cu percentages were recorded in the apple tree leaves treated with both concentrations of nCu (1, 2 g L-1) reaching 3.66% and 3.78%, respectively. The potassium percentage was significantly high in apple tree leaves for all the treatments. The control treatment was recorded with the lowest values in all the characteristics.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Apple trees, marine algae extracts, nano-zinc, nano-copper, growth, macro– and micronutrients composition

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.14

Nitrification inhibitors impact on nitrous oxide emission and ammonia volatilization: A sustainable measure toward a hygienic environment

A. NAWAZ, M.A. MAQSOOD, M.H. ZIA, M.I. AWAN, N. BORDOLOI, A. SHOUKAT, A. FAROOQ, N. RASHEED, M.I. ASHRAF, I. SALEEM, and S. EHSAN

SUMMARY

Nitrogen (N) application to agricultural fields warrants curtailing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and ammonia (NH3) volatilization for improved use efficiency with a less environmental footprint of N. As a means of mitigating N2O emissions, the efficacy of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) is well established but the efficacy of NIs in reducing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The study investigated the efficacy of neem oil, pomegranate leaf extract, and dicyandiamide (DCD) coating on prilled urea for reducing N2O emissions and the trend of NH3 release using static air closed chamber technique in an incubation room. The results showed that all NIs reduced N2O flux in the order of 37%–42% by DCD urea, 19%–34% by neem oil coated urea (NOCUs), and 11%–16% by pomegranate leaf extract coated urea (PLECU). However, over uncoated urea, 43%–54% NH3 flux was increased by DCD, 10%-32% by NOCUs, and significantly the least increase (5%–14%) in NH3 cumulative flux was shown by PLECU. Dicyandiamide significantly reduced N2O flux more than all other treatments, and PLECU showed the least increase in NH3emission when compared with other coated treatments. Hence, it is suggested that neem oil and pomegranate leaf extract could be used successfully not only for mitigating N2O emission, but also lessen environmental damages in association with managed N intense agriculture. Moreover, research focus on the increase in NH3 volatilization using DCD needs serious attention, especially in alkaline calcareous soils.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Coated urea, dicyandiamide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen inhibitors, neem oil, pomegranate

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.13

Bio-catharantin effects on phenotypic traits and chromosome number of shallots (Allium Cepa L. var. Ascalonicum ‘Tajuk’)

A.T. BILLA, S.S. LESTARI, B.S. DARYONO, and A.S. SUBIASTUTI

SUMMARY

The seasonal production of Allium cepa var. ascalonicum causes a rise in its demand during the offseason. Consumers mostly prefer onion cultivars like the ‘Super Philip’, because of their high productivity, large and round bulbs, shiny appearance, and less spicy taste. In plant breeding, polyploidy induction through mutagens is a technique often used to produce shallot cultivars of better quality. Bio-Catharantin from the leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus L. is used as a polyploid induction agent instead of colchicine. The latest study aimed to determine the effect of BioCatharantin concentration (0.2% and 0.4%) on phenotypic traits (plant height, bulb mass, and the number of bulbs), and the chromosome number to determine the minimum concentration that could cause polyploidization in shallots. The research was conducted from December 2020 to February 2021 in a greenhouse in Madurejo, Prambanan, and the Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Bio-Catharantin concentration did not affect plant height which was comparable with the control. Both treatments caused an increase in bulb mass up to 37.7 and 41.76 g at the concentrations of 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively, compared with the control (31.47 g). The number of bulbs increased up to 10.6 and 9.8 g for 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations, respectively, compared with 8.8 in the control. The ploidy level of cells was increased from 2n (16) to 3n (24) at 2% and 4n (32) at 4% Bio-Catharantin.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Shallots (Allium cepa L.), Catharanthus roseus L., bio-catharantin, polyploid, chromosome number, phenotypic traits

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.11