Author Archive Kaye1214

Temperature critical threshold for yield in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

ROSMAINA, ZULFAHMI, M. JANNAH, and SOBIR

SUMMARY

Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a horticultural plant susceptible to high-temperature stress. This research studied how agronomic and physiological characteristics of chili decline due to high temperature and determined the threshold value of temperature decreasing 50% of its yield. The experiment layout followed a randomized design, consisting of five temperature stress levels (in the growth chamber), namely, 31°C (daily temperature as a control), 33°C, 35°C, 37°C, and 39°C, with an exposure duration of 10 h. The temperature stress started when the plant reached the flowering phase. The plant parameters observed included agronomic and physiological characteristics. The study results showed that high-temperature decreased production significantly with the decline in all agronomic and physiological traits. The threshold temperature at 32.86°C has reduced the production of chili plants by 50% compared with the control. The study found that an increase in temperature of 2°C for 10 h in the flowering phase reduces chili production by 68.78%, and temperature stress at a maximum of 39°C for 10 h during flowering reduces chili production up to 87.52%. Hence, based on the study results, future research on chili should focus on developing varieties that are adaptive to high temperatures.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), heat stress, pollen viability, stomatal damage, flowering stage, yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.15

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Male flower characteristics of induced tetraploid, mixoploid, and diploid banana Musa acuminata (AA) cv. “Pisang Rejang”

D. MARTANTI, Y.S. POERBA, WITJAKSONO, HERLINA and F. AHMAD

SUMMARY

The banana cultivar “Pisang Rejang” (Musa AA “Pisang Rejang”) is Fusarium wilt resistant and therefore important for banana breeding. Tetraploid (4x) and mixoploid (2x+4x) plants of this cultivar have been induced with oryzalin, and crosses of these two ploidy levels resulted in a triploid hybrid (3x) plant. The availability of these various ploidy levels needs to be accompanied by data on their reproductive biology for their efficient utilization for breeding. This study characterized male flowers concerning qualitative and quantitative morphology, pollen viability, pollen size, nectar volume, nectar Brix index, and acidity level of those different ploidy levels. Observations indicated no differences in qualitative morphological traits, such as, shape and color, but for quantitative morphological traits, such as, size, distinction existed among the different ploidy levels. The triploid plant has huge flower parts in all the quantitative morphological traits, except compound tepal width, followed by the tetraploid, diploid, and mixoploid. Variations also occurred in pollen viability, pollen size, and nectar characters from each level of ploidy. Pollen viability is the highest for the diploid plant, while the tetraploid plant produces bigger pollen than the diploid. The triploid plant produced a low percentage of viable pollen. The study findings indicate that ploidy level affects the flower’s quantitative morphological characteristics, pollen viability, and pollen size, but not the flower’s qualitative morphological characteristics.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Pollen, viability, nectar, morphological character, breeding

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.14

Irradiation and polyamines impact on growth traits of grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata L.) Cultivated in vitro rooting

S.A. ALMUKHTAR and S.G.SH. BAJLAN

SUMMARY

Grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata L.) is an ornamental plant rich in cardiac glycosides, which stimulates heart activities and achieves greater attention for propagation through various traditional methods and modern tissue culture using gamma irradiation alone and in combination with polyamines. The recent study aimed to screen and select the effective doses and concentrations of irradiation and polyamines, respectively, for better growth traits of Digitalis lanata. The D. lanata seeds were irradiated with gamma-ray doses (0, 25, 50 grays [Gy]), and the spermidine (SPD) was used with various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg L-1). The results showed the superiority of gamma radiation with a dosage of 50 Gy by achieving the highest average germination rate of 100% (7.10 seeds day-1). In the rooting experiment, results further indicated that the radiation treatment (50 Gy) also excelled over other treatments, giving the highest percentage of rooting and root number, and root length, as well as, fresh and dried weights of root total, with values of 65.80%, 41.18 roots plant-1, 3.83 cm, 1.90 mg, and 0.90 mg, respectively compared with neutral (control) treatment. Concerning the effect of polyamine, the concentration of 1.5 mg L-1 proved to lead by producing the highest percentage of rooting and root number, roots length, as well as, fresh and dried weights of root total, amounting to 73%, 54.18 roots plant-1, 4.21 cm, 2.25 mg, and 1.19 mg, respectively compared with control. Low-dose gamma irradiation affected the seed germination and growth traits of D. lanata. The individual use of spermidine (polyamine) also enhanced the root number and length.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata L.), gamma rays, polyamine spermidine, plant tissue culture, germination, rooting, fresh and dry root weight

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.13

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Molecular and morphological identification of Trichoderma isolates from Egyptian agriculture wastes-rich soil

M.H. ISMAIEL, A.M. El ZANATY, and K.S. ABDEL-LATEIF

SUMMARY

Twenty isolates of Trichoderma were recovered from lignocellulosic agriculture wastes-rich soil collected from different Egyptian cities (Sadat, Tala, Abo Hamad, Belbeis, Zagazig, Mansoura, Belqas, Kafer-Elshikh, Bella, Tanta, Borg El Arab, Banha, Kafr Shoker, Qalyoub, Shebien Elqanater, Damanhur, Abu al-Matamir, Damietta, Kafr al-Battikh, and Kafr Saad). The Trichoderma isolates were first identified morphologically using conidiophore branching type and conidium morphology. Furthermore, molecular identification based on the ITS (internal transcribed spacers) barcode differentiated between Trichoderma isolates having 98.6% to 100% identity with two Trichoderma species: T. asperellum and T. longibrachiatum. Qualitative and quantitative tests were used for screening the cellulolytic activity of these isolates. The isolates were screened for cellulase production based on the clearing zone diameters and calorimetrically tested on minimal media supplemented with sugar cane bagasse and rice straw as sole carbon sources. The isolates TM41 (T. longibrachiatum) and TM35 (T. asperellum) exhibited the highest diameters of clear zones and showed higher Fpase and CMCase activities. Moreover, the isolate TM18 of T. asperellum displayed the highest diameters of clear zones and showed higher Fpase and Xylanase activities.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, ITS primers, cellulase activities, biodegradation, lignocellulosic wastes

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.12

Genetic diversity of maize inbred lines based on morphological traits and its association with heterosis

A.M.M. AL-NAGGAR, A.M. SOLIMAN, M.H. HUSSIEN, and A.M.H. MOHAMED

SUMMARY

In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.11

Genetic variability in weedy rice biotypes found in direct-seeded rice areas in the Philippines

L.M. JULIANO, X.G.I. CAGUIAT, E.V. EVANGELISTA, E.C. MARTIN, and A.H.M. RAMIREZ

Weedy rice can severely impact rice production through yield reduction because of its competitive ability to reduce growth resources for cultivated rice. The characteristic weedy traits have made weedy rice very challenging to manage as they have the same agro-morphological characteristics with cultivated rice. The study examined the relationships between selected cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, weedy rice biotypes, and wild rice collected from different locations in the Philippines, using simple sequence repeat markers. Cluster analysis, using UPGMA, enabled the genetic differentiation and relationships examination of the test materials. Subgroups of 13 with at least two biotypes formed 100% similarity based on post-harvest data, with the cultivated rice cultivars forming one subgroup. With polymorphic SSR markers, five major clusters range from three (group I) to 62 biotypes (group III). There was 100% similarity observed for 15 subgroups ranging from two to 10 biotypes. The wild rice cultivars formed species-specific groupings. Subgroups with 100% similarity came from the same province; likewise, one with 100% similarity came from both Iloilo and Batangas; and still another from cultivated rice cultivar and weedy rice biotype from Pangasinan. The possible relationships of weedy rice biotypes with wild rice relatives (>65% similarity) include two biotypes related to Oryza minuta, one for O. meyeriana, and 22 biotypes for O. rufipogon. Concerning cultivated rice cultivars, high similarity (>80%) was observed in 22 biotypes closely related to PSB Rc 82, 13 biotypes to NSIC Rc 222, six to NSIC Rc 160, three biotypes each to NSIC Rc 215, NSIC Rc 152, NSIC Rc 64, NSIC Rc 18, and NSIC Rc 10, and one biotype each to IR64 and NSIC Rc 14.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.10

Groundnut genotypes’ diversity assessment for yield and oil quality traits through multivariate analysis

S. ALI, R. AHMAD, M.F. HASSAN, D. IBRAR, M.S. IQBAL, M.S. NAVEED, M. ARSALAN, A. REHMAN, and T. HUSSAIN

SUMMARY

Genetic variability is essential in plant breeding for crop adaptation in a specific environment, enhancing yield potential, creating resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, improving quality attributes, and most importantly, selecting desirable and better parents for hybridization programs. The study was designed to ascertain the genotypic diversity of 54 accessions of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). The study evaluated these accessions/genotypes for 13 different traits (morphological, yield, and oil quality) under the rainfed climate of Pakistan. Significant differences were observed for all studied traits. Likewise, significant difference in the percent coefficient of variability (CV%) was also found for these traits. The research included classifying the genotypes further into six different clusters using the Ward method. Principal component analysis was performed that showed variability in components for different traits. The first five principal components (PCs) showed an eigenvalue of more than one that contributed about 71.83% of the total observed variation. Major characters accounted for by PC1 included pod weight per plant, grain weight per plant, and the number of pods per plant. PC2 positively contributed to oleic acid and shelling percentage, PC3 contributed positively to dry pod yield, plant height, and days to flower initiation, and PC4 contributed for days to 50% flowering, the number of pods per plant, and dry pod yield. These data on genotypic diversity for studied traits in the recent investigation will help breed new groundnut lines to strengthen germplasm sources for cultivar development in rainfed areas of Pakistan.

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Date of publication: September 2022

Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, cluster analysis, divergence, groundnut, oleic acid, PCA

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.9

In silico profiling of proline biosynthesis and degradation related genes during fruit development of tomato

J.M. AL-KHAYRI, A.A.H. ABDEL LATEF, H.S.A. TAHA, A.S. ELDOMIATY, M.A. ABD-ELFATTAH, A.A. REZK, W.F. SHEHATA, M.I. ALMAGHASLA, T.A. SHALABY, M.N. SATTAR, M.F. AWAD, and A.A. HASSANIN

SUMMARY

Advancements in DNA sequencing technologies with decreasing costs have sparked the generation of larger gene expression datasets generated at an accelerating rate. The study aimed to visualize the spatiotemporal profiles of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genes involved in L-proline biosynthesis and to show their potential functions. Increasing L-proline accumulation, through upregulation and downregulation of genes responsible for L-proline biosynthesis and degradation, plays an essential role in tomato plants suffering abiotic and biotic stress. Understanding the possible mechanism of L-proline biosynthesis and degradation needs an urgent study of the expression pattern and function of genes involved in these physiological processes. The study identified the genes governing the L-proline biosynthesis and degradation pathways and their expression profiles in 10 stages of tomato fruit development using the Tomato Expression Atlas (TEA) bioinformatic tool. The analysis showed that L-proline biosynthesis resulted from three pathways governed by six genes, while its degradation occurred in two pathways managed by three genes. The bioinformatics analysis also showed the expression of proline synthesis/degradation-related genes in fruit parts at various developmental stages. However, proline degradation-related genes showed higher expression levels than biosynthesis-related genes. This study sheds light on a recent bioinformatics tool, which will pave the way to detect early plant performance by analyzing the expression profiles of genes.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Tomato, bioinformatics, L-proline accumulation genes, gene expression, proline biosynthesis genes, salinity, drought

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.8

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Heritability, genetic gain, and path coefficient analyses in black gram at Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

S. JAMIL, M. ILYAS, M.Z. KHAN, S.I. AWAN, S. REHMAN, S. SHAFIQUE, S. HAFEEZ, M. RIAZ, H.M. AHMAD, A. TAMKEEN, M.A. GHAFFAR, and M.M. KHAN

SUMMARY

Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a principal pulse crop worldwide. The research aimed to screen the genetic diversity among 10 black gram genotypes using biometrical tools, such as, genotypic and phenotypic correlation, path coefficient analysis, and heritability and genetic gain. The highest genotypic and phenotypic variability resulted from pods per plant, plant height, primary branches, and seeds per pod. The study recorded very low estimated heritability for all the studied traits. The correlation coefficient indicated that seed yield per plant showed a positive and significant correlation with pods per plant and pod length, indicating that further use of these characteristics can improve the black gram yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed a positive and direct effect on seed yield per plant with plant height, days to 50% flowering, primary branches, branch length, pod per plant, and seeds per pod. These traits proved relevant for the direct selection criteria and future breeding programs. The investigation results can be very helpful in selecting the black gram’s suitable genotypes with appropriate yield for cultivation in rainfed conditions of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Black gram (Vigna mungo L.), genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variability, heritability, genetic gain, path coefficient analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.7

Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense. L) lines assessment for drought tolerance in Uzbekistan

J. SHAVKIEV, S. NABIEV, A. AZIMOV, N. CHORSHANBIEV , and K.H. NURMETOV

SUMMARY

Globally, increasing water and energy demand is expected to reach 6.9 trillion cubic meters by 2030, exceeding 40% of the available water supplies. Climate change and rising temperatures caused water shortages due to lesser and irregular rainfalls, leading to lower production of crops. The research to assess drought tolerance of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense. L) lines in Uzbekistan revealed the line, T-450 as the most promising for drought environments. The research, in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications with a factorial arrangement and two irrigation regimes (non-stress and water stress at the seedling stage), was conducted at the experimental field of the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology, District Zangi-Ota, Tashkent Region, Uzbekistan. Nine Pima cotton lines, i.e., Сурхон-14 (control cultivar), Т-1, Т-5440, Т-2006, Т-10, Т-167, Т-5445, Т-450, and Т-663 with diverse agronomic characters, were selected for their potential yield during 2019, 2020, and 2021 cropping seasons under two different environments (optimal and water deficit condition). Drought indices revealed significant differences among lines, except the golden mean (GM). Results in the ranking method indicate that among the drought tolerance indices, mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), mean relative performance (MRP), relative efficiency index (REI), and relative drought index (RDY), show the most suitable indicators because of their high correlation with seed cotton yield. Cluster analysis and threedimensional plots showed the cotton inbred lines with the highest tolerance to drought under both irrigation conditions. The first three principal components (PCs) explained 67.54% of total variation and the PC1 can be nominated as a potentially stable yield. The biplot diagram based on PCs and drought tolerance indices showed that MP, GMP, STI, MRP, REI, and YI were the best indices for screening the tolerant cotton inbred lines, such as, T-450.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Pima cotton lines, non-stress and water stress, cluster analysis, principal component and biplot analyses, correlation, seed cotton yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.6