Author Archive Kaye1214

Chili pepper genotypes assay approach for resistance to Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera:Aphididae)

Daryanto A, Syukur M, Sobir, Maharijaya A, Hidayat P

SUMMARY

The cotton aphid (Aphis gossypi), is one of the most devastating insect pests for chili pepper that damages the crop and transmits several viruses. Thus far, there is no commercial chili cultivar with effective resistance to cotton aphids (CA). The present study aimed to develop a reliable and practical screening protocol in chili peppers for aphids resistance in the tropical areas. Three no-choice test methods i.e., seedling cage, detached leaf, and clip cage tests have been developed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in a greenhouse at the Gunung Putri, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Seven chili pepper genotypes belong to the species Capsicum annuum L. provided by the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia were used in this study. Chili pepper resistance to aphids was observed through the number of aphids progeny, and aphids fecundity among the genotypes. Two chili genotypes consistently showed low infestation while other genotypes showed the highest infestation with three screening methods. All the methods have a high heritability value (90%–91%), indicating that the evaluated chili genotypes could be used to determine effective screening methods. The correlation between the detached leaf and clip cage tests was significant (r = 0.84, P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the clip cage test could be used as a reliable and practical screening test for the assay of chili peppers resistance to CA infestation. These information will be helpful in the development of aphid resistant cultivars in the future.

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Keywords: Clip cage, cotton aphids, detached leaf, no-choice tests, seedling phase

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.15

Molecular characterization and n use efficiency of LeAlaAT ‘Mekongga’ transgenic rice lines


Yulita DS, Purwoko BS, Sisharmini A, Apriana A, Santoso TJ, Trijatmiko KR, Sukma D

SUMMARY

Genetic engineering is one of the strategies for developing nitrogen (N)-use-efficient rice (Oryza sativa) varieties. One gene that plays an indirect role in N metabolism is alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). It can efficiently increase N content and crop yield. In a previous study, the tomato AlaAT gene (LeAlaAT) was successfully isolated and introduced into ‘Mekongga’ rice. The present research was conducted during 2018 and 2019 at the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development (ICABIOGRAD), Bogor, Indonesia. The objectives of the present study were to perform the molecular characterization of LeAlaAT ‘Mekongga’ rice lines on the basis of the hpt marker gene, the direct PCR of the LeAlaAT fragment, and the phenotypic evaluation of the selected LeAlaAT T1 ‘Mekongga’ rice lines in response to different N fertilizer rates (0 kg ha−1 [control] and 60, 90, and 120 kg ha−1). This research involved three activities, namely (1) Southern blot analysis, (2) direct PCR, and (3) N use efficiency (NUE) test of ‘Mekongga’ transgenic lines. Southern blot analysis revealed that in T0 transgenic lines, the copy number of the hpt marker gene varied from 1 to 3. Direct PCR confirmed the presence of the AlaAT fragment in the T1 generation of five ‘Mekongga’ transgenic lines. The five transgenic lines showed high panicle number, biomass weight, shoot dry weight, and total grain weight under 120 kg ha−1 nitrogen. The high agronomical NUE of transgenic lines under 120 kg ha−1 N implied that the transgenic rice lines have the potential for efficient N use at a certain minimum level of N (120 kg ha−1 of nitrogen) and should be further evaluated at high N levels.

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Keyword: Ma Alanine aminotransferase, LeAlaAT transgenic rice lines, Mekongga, Southern blot, direct PCR, N use efficiency

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.14

Genetic profiles of three Cinchona species in Junghuhn Natural Reserve, Indonesia

Sasongko ND, Yuniati A, Gayo Billmora LA

SUMMARY

Cinchona species were widely used as ancient medicines for different diseases because they contain the active component quinine and its derivatives. However, studies on the molecular aspects of cinchona, including its genetic diversity, have not been reported because most previous works focused on the administration of the antimalarial cinchona alkaloid. Quinine is also being tested as alternative compound for the treatment of Covid-19. The Junghuhn Natural Reserve in Indonesia contains three different types of cinchona plants, namely, Cinchona calisaya, Cinchona pubescens, and Cinchona sp. Given that the genetic diversity and kinship of these species have never been studied, collecting data on the cinchona gene pool has become imperative. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of the cinchona species in the Junghuhn Natural Reserve, Indonesia, by using eight RAPD markers, i.e., OPA-2, OPA-9, OPB-02, OPB-03, OPB-04, OPB-05, OPB-7, and OPJ-07, during 2020 at the University of Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto Indonesia. Polymorphic band data were obtained. Then, phenogram analysis was conducted by using UPGMA and maximum parsimony with MEGA7. The RAPD profiles of Cinchona species (C. calisaya, C. pubescent, and Cinchona sp.) revealed polymorphism with different markers, i.e., OPA-2 (90%), OPB-2 (75%), OPB-5 (75%), OPB-3 (66.66%), OPB-4 (66.66%), OPB-7 (66.66%), OPJ-7 (66.66%), and OPA-9 (58.33%) sequentially with total polymorphism (70.62%). C. calisaya was identified as the most distinctive species. UPGMA yielded a coefficient of 0.200 and two distinctive groups: Group I, which comprised C. pubescens and Cinchona sp. with the pdistance value of 0.333, and Group II, which contained C. calisaya. Ixora sp. was treated as an outgroup plant. The topology of the dendrogram was consistent with that of the UPGMA dendrogram. Results may be used for the further exploration of the genetic diversity of cinchona species.

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Keywords: Cinchona species, genetic diversity, RAPD markers, polymorphism, UPGMA analysis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.12

Drought effects on the mineral composition of the leaves of actinidia species

Tetyannikov NV, Кozak NV, Panischeva DV, Mertvischeva ME, Gins MS, Kаbashnikova LF, Domanskaya IN, Pilipovich TS

SUMMARY

Against the background of global climate change, drought stress has become one of the environmental limiting factors that can significantly influence the growth and development of crop plants. Drought stress conditions also cause changes in plant physiological and metabolic processes. The influence of soil drought on the mineral composition of the leaves of two Actinidia species with С3-type photosynthesis, namely, Actinidia argutа (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. cultivar ‘Taezhny Dar’ and Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. & Rupr.) Maxim. cultivar ‘Narodnaya’, was studied through energy dispersive spectrometry. The investigations were carried out during 2020 to 2021 at the Department of Genofonde and Bioresources of Plants, Federal Scientific Center for Horticulture, Moscow. The present research revealed that actinidia leaves contained the following major elements: K (11.19 mass% to 13.84 mass%), Ca (7.83% to 12.08 mass%), Cl (6.20 mass% to 7.33 mass%), and Mg (2.98 mass% to 3.44 mass%). Low values were recorded for Mo (1.19 mass% to 4.49 mass%) and P (0.83 mass% to 1.25 mass%). In both species, the mineral elements K and Ca were present at high levels. A positive correlation was observed between Mg–P, KMn, Mn–Se, Cu-Se, P–Si, Na–Mo, and Si–Mn in the leaves of A. argutа and between Cl–Ca, Mo; P–Si, Mo; and K–Ca in the leaves of A. kolomikta. Under stress conditions, the ratios of K/Ca and K/P declined to 0.9 and 6.3, respectively, whereas those of K/Cl, K/Mg, and K/Mo increased to 3.8, 4.4, and 2.7, respectively. The present studies confirmed that actinidia leaves contained high concentrations of minerals, especially K, Ca, P, and Mg, and that the accumulation of mineral elements in actinidia plant leaves under drought conditions varied depending on the species.

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Keywords: Mineral composition, leaves, drought stress, EDS analysis, Actinidia argutа, Actinidia kolomikta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.13

Expression of some salt tolerance genes isolated from Egyptian gray mangrove (Avicennia marina)

El-Atawy AA, Rizk MS, El-Demerdash ES, Ahmed MZS

SUMMARY

Mangroves are well-adapted halophytes that thrive in coastal saline environments. They live under difficult environmental conditions, such as high light intensity and external salt concentrations, as well as low-oxygen environments, such as water-logged muck, that are typically inappropriate for the survival of other plants. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that affects plant growth, productivity, and dispersal in tropical and semitropical intertidal areas. Furthermore, it affects approximately 20% of all cultivable land and 50% of all irrigated land on the planet. Mangroves have developed a sophisticated salt filtration mechanism and a complicated root structure to withstand salty water exposure and tidal movement. The expression patterns of five salt tolerance genes (amFer1, amDhna, amSod1, amCat1, and amUbc2) in the Egyptian gray mangrove (Avicennia marina Forssk.) grown under different environmental conditions in South Sinai protectorates (Nabq, Ras Mohamed, Safaga, and Wadi El-Gemal), Egypt, were investigated in this study. This study aimed to assess and examine the genetic behavior of mangroves in response to salinity by using quantitative real-time PCR. Findings revealed differences in the expression patterns of the investigated genes under various conditions, showing that salinity influences plant genetic response. Ferritin gene expression was high in all locations, indicating that ferritin represents an essential component of the mangrove response mechanisms.

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Keywords: Mangrove (Avicennia marina), (amFer1, amDhna, amSod1, amCat1, and amUbc2), salt tolerance genes, quantitative real-time PCR

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.11

Assessment of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) accessions for pollen sources in natural crossing by using microsatellites

Azka NA, Taryono, Wulandari RA

SUMMARY

Tea (Camellia sinensis L. [O.] Kuntze) is a highly cross-pollinated and self-incompatible plant. Seeds can be harvested from specific individual mother plants in polyclonal tea gardens. Whether the pollen donor plays an important role in seed formation remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the male parents of 72 natural hybridized progenies (F1) from one female parent on the basis of a putative specific allele by using simplesequence repeat (SSR) markers and the exclusion-likelihood method with Cervus 3.0 software. The genetic material, which comprised seven accessions of C. sinensis L., was acquired from Assamica planted in the Kayulandak polyclonal seed garden of the Pagilaran tea plantation in Batang District, Central Java, Indonesia, and was studied during 2019 and 2020. The genotype PGL-15 was used as the female parent, whereas the six candidate genotypes PGL-10, GMB-9, GMB-7, TPS-93, GMB-11, and TRI 2025 were used as the male parents. In this study, 13 SSR loci were used to identify the male parents of the F1 progenies obtained through natural hybridization between one female and six male tea accessions. Results indicated that the exclusion-likelihood method, which correctly predicted 100% of the male parents, was more effective than the putative specific allele approach, which correctly predicted only 34.72% of the male parents in the 72 hybridized F1 progenies of tea plants.

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Keywords: Camellia sinensis L., natural pollination, SSR markers, paternity analysis, putative specific allele, exclusion-likelihood method

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.10

Adoption and adaptability of modern Aman rice cultivars in Faridpur Region – Bangladesh

Chakrobarty T, Asadulla Al Galib M, Zahidul Islam M, Akhlasur Rahman M

SUMMARY

Rice is not just a staple food; but it is at the center of culture, politics, and economy of Bangladesh. The determinants affecting the adoption of modern rice cultivars and their adaptability in the Aman season (June to November) at the Faridpur region in Bangladesh were discussed. A total of 500 farmers from five different districts such as, Faridpur, Madaripur, Shariatpur, Rajbari, and Gopalganj through multistage sampling technique participated in the survey. Before the survey, 15 farmers were selected for the cultivation of eight modern T. Aman rice cultivars in their fields during three consecutive years 2018 to 2020 in the mentioned five districts of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to identify the determinants associated with the adoption of modern rice cultivars by replacing the popular old ones. Results revealed that beyond preferences, some other determinants (age, education, risk aversion, land size, yield, and perception of modern rice cultivars and their seed availability) directed the decision to adopt or not. Considering the average grain yield of the tested rice cultivars, the genotypes BRRI dhan72 (G-6) and BRRI dhan87 (G 8) were the high yielding cultivars for the above five districts. Despite having a comparatively low yield, the cultivars BRRI dhan71 (G-4) and BRRI dhan49 (G-3) were more stable compared to other cultivars in the Faridpur region of Bangladesh.

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Keywords: Adoption, adaptability, heritability, GGE, Aman rice

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.9

Rubus idaeus L. fruit nutrients are affected by different growing technologies

Evdokimenko SN, Motyleva SM, Medvedev SM, Kulikov IM

SUMMARY

The biochemical compounds of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits cultivated with conventional growing technology and on a nutrient substrate were studied during 20192020 at the Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, Moscow, Russia. The antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and ash constituents of the fruits and the metabolites of the alcoholic extract of the raspberries were determined. The effect of growing technologies, i.e., conventional vs. nutrient substrate, on the accumulation of macro- and microelements in raspberry fruits was established. In red raspberries grown on nutrient substrate, the antioxidant activity decreased by 25 times (aqueous extract) and 1.5 times (alcoholic extract). The K and Na contents and Se contents of red raspberries grown on nutrient substrate were 1.5 and 3 times higher than those of raspberries of grown with conventional technology. Raspberries grown with conventional technology contained 2 times more Ca, Ni, and Mn and 7.4 times more Fe than raspberries grown on nutrient substrate. The total amount of elements in raspberries grown through soilless cultivation was 5.5% higher than that in berries grown conventionally. A total of 48 compounds were identified in the alcoholic extracts, and only 29 substances were found in berries grown on a nutrient substrate. Sugar and citric acid constituted the largest share of red raspberry components. Fructose and turanose disaccharide synthesis in raspberries grown on nutrient substrate was 20% higher than that in conventionally grown raspberries. A total of 48 organic compounds with different biological activities were identified. They included five substances with antimicrobial activity, three phenolic substances, eight organic acids, four sugar acids, nine amino acids, and 19 sugars and their derivatives. At the same time, 42 compounds were found in raspberries grown with traditional technology, and 21 compounds were identified in raspberry fruits grown on nutrient substrate. Three fatty acids, namely, ɑ-linoleic acid (polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid), palmitic acid, and stearic acid (saturated fatty acid), along with cinnamic acid, shikimic acid, and chrysin were found in berries grown conventionally.

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Keywords: Rubus idaeus L., conventional growing, nutrient substrate, nutrients, antioxidant activity, ash constituents of fruits, metabolites, bioactive compounds

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.8

Rice backcross population assessment for iron tolerance through phenotypic and genotypic analyses

Tam VT, vy LT, Huu NT, Ha PTT

SUMMARY

Iron toxicity has become a serious issue affecting rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in many irrigated lowland areas. The selection of Fe2+-tolerant rice cultivars under iron toxicity conditions and the identification of molecular markers are good approaches to obtaining tangible results. This study aimed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that were associated with iron tolerance traits in a rice backcross population. A total of 117 seedlings from the backcross (BC3F2) of ‘OM6830’/‘AS996’//‘AS996’ were phenotyped at the 4-week-seedling stage at Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The rice population was screened in Yoshida nutrient medium supplemented with FeCl2 at a concentration of 150 mg L−1 under greenhouse conditions. Phenotypic analysis was conducted by scoring two parameters, namely, root length and leaf bronzing. Genotypic analysis was carried out on the BC3F2 population by using four markers, i.e., RM6, RM240, RM252, and RM451, for association analysis with iron tolerance. A total of 23 BC3F2 lines were selected on the basis of their higher tolerance (score 1) for Fe2+ compared with the tolerant parental line ‘AS996’. The markers RM6 and RM240 were highly polymorphic and identified different Fe2+-tolerant lines in the BC3F2 population. Among the BC3F3 progeny derived from the selected 23 BC3F2 lines, BC3F3-7 was identified as the most Fe2+-tolerant line. BC3F3-15 was also found to be Fe2+ tolerant. Both lines showed good development capability and provided high yields under stress conditions. These tolerant BC3F3 lines could be further screened with additional SSR markers in future breeding programs aiming to increase rice production in iron-contaminated areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

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Keywords: Backcrosses, iron toxicity, phenotypic and genotypic traits, screening, SSR markers, genetic analysis, Oryza sativa L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.7

Analysis of the genetic diversity of Phalaenopsis orchids with single nucleotide polymorphisms and snap markers derived from the Pto gene

Sukma D, Elina J, Raynalta E, Aisyah SI, Aziz SA, Sudarsono, Chan MT

SUMMARY

The Pto gene is a plant gene that has been reported to be involved in resistance to bacterial pathogens. A partial genomic sequence corresponding to Pto (~449 bp) was isolated from 16 species and four hybrids of Phalaenopsis during 2017 at the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia. Multiple sequence analysis was performed to find putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and design the corresponding single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism (SNAP) markers, which were in turn used to estimate the genetic diversity of 25 Phalaenopsis species. In total, 20 SNPs, of which 14 were nonsynonymous, were identified from the partial Pto sequences. Eighteen SNAP primers were then developed based on these 14 nonsynonymous and four synonymous SNPs. Validation results showed that 15 SNAP primers showed a polymorphism information content exceeding 0.3, suggesting the existence of more than two alleles for this locus. Upon their use, the SNAP markers described 86% of all interspecies variability. The Pto 52, Pto 349, Pto 229, and Pto 380 SNAP markers were very informative in the determination of genetic diversity. Notably, the existence of these nonsynonymous SNPs implied the possibility of functional changes within the amino acid sequence of the putative PTO protein. Thus, the resulting differences in the activity of the PTO protein may be used to breed tolerance to pathogen infection. Further work may be required to establish a functional link between tolerance to pathogens and the presence of Pto-SNAP markers in Phalaenopsis properly.

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Keywords: Phalaenopsis, moth orchid, diversity, single nucleotide polymorphism, Pto, bacterial resistance

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.6