Author Archive Kaye1214

Improvement of the submergence stress tolerance of local South Sumatran rice through the introgression of the Sub1 gene by using marker-assisted selection

Adriansyah F, Hasmeda M, Suwignyo RA, Halimi ES, Sarimana U

SUMMARY

Submergence stress due to unpredictable soil flooding is one of the mainconstraints encountered in rainfed growing areas, especially in Southern Sumatran riparian swamps. The development of submergence-stress-tolerant cultivars through the introgression of Sub1 via marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an ideal solution. This study was carried out during 2020 at Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia, with the aim to select Sub1-introgressed lines in BC3F1 generations on the basis of MABC and to screen out the SSR markers that were unlinked to the target gene for application in subsequent background selection studies. Results revealed that almost all the backcrossed progenies segregated from the rice parental cultivars ‘FR13A’ and ‘Pegagan’. The backcrossed lines showed significantly improved submergence stress tolerance and recovery rates compared with their parents. Sub1 introgression into the BC3F1 generation was confirmed by the tightly linked Sub1 marker SUB1C173, and marker RM23915 was used for recombinant selection. These markers followed the expected marker segregation ratio in accordance with the Mendelian single gene model. In the parental polymorphism survey, 84 out of 237 SSR markers that were unlinked to the target loci were found to be available for background study. Twenty-seven backcrossed lines were selected on the basis of foreground selection. Seven plants were selected on the basis of the recombinant marker RM23915. Five backcrossed lines were further selected on the basis of submergence stress tolerance and agronomic performance.

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Keywords: Backcrossing, SSR markers, Sub1 gene, submergence tolerance, Oryza sativa L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.3

Morphophysiological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes prevailing in the core area of Punjab, Pakistan

Haq IU, Razzaq H, Haq MA, Saeed A, Hameed M, Asif M

SUMMARY

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops and the fourth most important edible crop after the three major cereal crops. It is considered as an approximately complete diet food because of its nutritional value. Its center of origin is Peru, South America. In Punjab, Pakistan, the districts of Sahiwal and Okara serve as the core areas of potato cultivation. Thirty-three potato genotypes were collected from the core areas of Punjab for characterization. The genetic diversity of potato germplasm was assessed on the basis of morphophysiological traits. This experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design and three replications. The data on 14 morphological and physiological traits were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated the presence of highly significant variation for each physiological and morphological trait. Correlation analysis showed that plant yield was highly correlated with the number of tubers per plant (0.484), tuber weight (0.648), and chlorophyll contents (0.365). By contrast, tuber dry matter exhibited a significant highly negative association with tuber moisture content (−0.753). Algorithmic hierarchical cluster analysis allocated the genotypes into four distinct clusters. Cluster 2, which was the largest cluster, comprised 18 genotypes. By contrast, cluster 4 was the smallest cluster and contained only two genotypes. The results of diversity analysis obtained through hierarchical clustering were further validated through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA provided five significant principal components that contributed 72.39% of the total variation. The principal components of the biplot explained 41.95% of the total variation, with tuber moisture content and tuber dry matter as distinct traits. Cultivars ‘SH5’, ‘SH 7-18’, ‘Simply Red,’ and ‘Ruby’ were the vertex genotypes in the biplot. Results indicated the prevalence of significant variation in the tested germplasm. Furthermore, the assessment of diversity at the molecular level is recommended for the further validation of genetic diversity.

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Keywords: Genetic diversity, Punjab, morphophysiological traits, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, Solanum tuberosum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.2

Biochemical and cytological features of onion bulbs and leaves collected from various ecogeographical origins

Nemtinov VI, Kostanchuk YN, Pashtetskiy VS, Motyleva SM, Bokhan AI, Caruso G, Katskaya AG, Timasheva LA, Pekhova OA


SUMMARY

Allium cepa L. genotypes with different ecogeographical origins revealed the highest nutritional values when grown in Crimea, Russia. However, their environmental adaptation should be further investigated. This research was performed during 2016–17 to evaluate the qualitative, antioxidant, and mineral composition characteristics of 15 onion genotypes, of which four originated from the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution, Research Institute of Agriculture, Crimea, Russia. Sweet onion genotypes exhibited high ascorbic acid contents of 11.8–27.3 mg/100 g. However, some genotypes had a narrow range of ascorbic acid content (11.8–21.1 mg/100 g) due to their different ecogeographical origins and proved to be appropriate for industrial processing because of their spicy taste. Intensely colored bulbs had a high content of polyphenols (anthocyanins), which are known to have a positive influence on human health. Electronic microscopic assays revealed the morphological characteristics of A. cepa L. genotype leaves and demonstrated the differences in epidermal structure and adaptability potential. The 12 main mineral macro- and microelements with the highest contents in onion leaves were analyzed. The hyperaccumulator genotype with the highest leaf macro- and microelement content could be used to address mineral element deficiencies in humans. In onion genotype leaves, the contents of the mineral elements followed the order of Zn > Fe > Si > Na > Р > Cl > Mo > Mg > S > Ca > Cu > K. The biochemical analysis of 13 onion cultivars showed that the majority exceeded the standard values of dry matter and sugars (mono- and disaccharides) by 13% and 46%, 11% and 48%, and 36% and 150%. In onion genotypes, leaf surface microstructure was specific, and the largest stomata corresponded to the most productive cultivars.

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Date Published: December 2021

Keywords: Onion, bulb (Allium cepa L.), ascorbic acid, leaves, electronic microscopy scanning, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, mineral elements

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.1

SABRAO JOURNAL of BREEDING and GENETICS Volume 50 Number 3 SEPTEMBER 2018

ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND NATURAL ZEOLITE EFFECTS ON MORPHOMETRIC TRAITS OF BRASSICA NAPUS L. POLLEN GRAINS

T. ZUBKOVA, S. MOTYLEVA, D. VINOGRADOV, V. GULIDOVA, and O. DUBROVINA

SUMMARY

Morphological characteristics of Brassica napus pollen (polar axis, equatorial diameter, shape index, pattern of perforation of exines, and perimeter of perforation zones) were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy JEOL JSM-6390. The B. napus seeds were grown under various agroecological conditions, i.e., mineral fertilizer (NPK 60:60:60 t hasup>-1) separately and together with zeolite, chicken droppings (10 t ha-1) separately and together with zeolite (5 t hasup>-1), and control (without fertilizers) from 2018 to 2020 at the Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia. It was found that pollen grains of B. napus had an oblong-ellipsoid shape. In the polar view, the pollen grains were circular with straight sides, though in the equatorial view, elliptical. For the polar axis of the pollen grains in fertilizer application treatments, the minimum values ranged from 24.59 to 27.76 µm, whereas the maximum readings were 40.13 to 42.12 µm compared with control (21.56 µm, 41.52 µm). The coefficient of variation for fertilizer applications ranged from 8.86% to 14.10% compared with control (14.85%) for the polar axis. For the equatorial axis of the pollen grains, the minimum values varied from 11.61 to 15.63 µm, whereas the range for the maximum values was 19.74 to 23.96 µm compared with the control (13.63 µm, 21.88 µm). For the equatorial axis among the fertilizer applications, the coefficient of variation varied from 8.47% to 12.01% compared with the control (18.35%). For the perimeter of the exine perforation of the pollen grains, the minimum values ranged from 1.68 to 1.95 µm, whereas the maximum values varied from 4.34 to 7.12 µm compared with the control (1.34 µm, 5.68 µm). The coefficient of variation varied from 24.48% to 33.19% compared with the control (34.78%) for the perimeter of exine perforation. The shape index of the pollen grains of the B. napus varied from 1.96 to 2.07 µm (correct unit of measure?) compared with the control (2.03 µm). Overall, with the use of organic fertilizers and zeolite, the morphometric parameters of pollen grains were significantly enhanced.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Brassica napus, micromorphology, pollen grains, analytical scanning electron microscopy, agroecological experience

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.15

Marine algae extracts, and nano fertilizer with zinc and copper effects on growth and macro- and micronutrients composition of apple trees

KH.A. KAREEM, Z.O.O. ALOJANY, and A.S.A. AL-JANABI

SUMMARY

Bioactive compound marine algae extracts (MAE), nano-zinc (nZn) and nano-copper (nCu) fertilizer effects on growth traits, and macro– and micronutrient composition in apple trees were studied. The recent study was carried out in 2021 at the laboratories of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq, and Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq. In the conducted experiment, the treatments comprise the foliar application of marine algae extracts with two concentrations at 0.5 and 1 ml L-1, nZn at 1 and 2 g L-1, nCu at 1 and 2 g L-1, and a control in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that apple trees treated with marine algae extracts were superior in enhancing the shoot length, diameter, leaves per tree, leaf area, leaf dry matter, and percentages of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and copper (Cu). The other two treatments (nZn and nCu) also showed highest values for some characteristics and moderate values for other traits that excelled the control treatment. Zinc percentage was significant in apple tree leaves when treated with two concentrations of nZn (1, 2 g L-1 ) reaching 1.89% and 1.97%, respectively. The highest Cu percentages were recorded in the apple tree leaves treated with both concentrations of nCu (1, 2 g L-1) reaching 3.66% and 3.78%, respectively. The potassium percentage was significantly high in apple tree leaves for all the treatments. The control treatment was recorded with the lowest values in all the characteristics.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Apple trees, marine algae extracts, nano-zinc, nano-copper, growth, macro– and micronutrients composition

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.14

Nitrification inhibitors impact on nitrous oxide emission and ammonia volatilization: A sustainable measure toward a hygienic environment

A. NAWAZ, M.A. MAQSOOD, M.H. ZIA, M.I. AWAN, N. BORDOLOI, A. SHOUKAT, A. FAROOQ, N. RASHEED, M.I. ASHRAF, I. SALEEM, and S. EHSAN

SUMMARY

Nitrogen (N) application to agricultural fields warrants curtailing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and ammonia (NH3) volatilization for improved use efficiency with a less environmental footprint of N. As a means of mitigating N2O emissions, the efficacy of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) is well established but the efficacy of NIs in reducing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The study investigated the efficacy of neem oil, pomegranate leaf extract, and dicyandiamide (DCD) coating on prilled urea for reducing N2O emissions and the trend of NH3 release using static air closed chamber technique in an incubation room. The results showed that all NIs reduced N2O flux in the order of 37%–42% by DCD urea, 19%–34% by neem oil coated urea (NOCUs), and 11%–16% by pomegranate leaf extract coated urea (PLECU). However, over uncoated urea, 43%–54% NH3 flux was increased by DCD, 10%-32% by NOCUs, and significantly the least increase (5%–14%) in NH3 cumulative flux was shown by PLECU. Dicyandiamide significantly reduced N2O flux more than all other treatments, and PLECU showed the least increase in NH3emission when compared with other coated treatments. Hence, it is suggested that neem oil and pomegranate leaf extract could be used successfully not only for mitigating N2O emission, but also lessen environmental damages in association with managed N intense agriculture. Moreover, research focus on the increase in NH3 volatilization using DCD needs serious attention, especially in alkaline calcareous soils.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Coated urea, dicyandiamide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen inhibitors, neem oil, pomegranate

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.13

Bio-catharantin effects on phenotypic traits and chromosome number of shallots (Allium Cepa L. var. Ascalonicum ‘Tajuk’)

A.T. BILLA, S.S. LESTARI, B.S. DARYONO, and A.S. SUBIASTUTI

SUMMARY

The seasonal production of Allium cepa var. ascalonicum causes a rise in its demand during the offseason. Consumers mostly prefer onion cultivars like the ‘Super Philip’, because of their high productivity, large and round bulbs, shiny appearance, and less spicy taste. In plant breeding, polyploidy induction through mutagens is a technique often used to produce shallot cultivars of better quality. Bio-Catharantin from the leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus L. is used as a polyploid induction agent instead of colchicine. The latest study aimed to determine the effect of BioCatharantin concentration (0.2% and 0.4%) on phenotypic traits (plant height, bulb mass, and the number of bulbs), and the chromosome number to determine the minimum concentration that could cause polyploidization in shallots. The research was conducted from December 2020 to February 2021 in a greenhouse in Madurejo, Prambanan, and the Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. Bio-Catharantin concentration did not affect plant height which was comparable with the control. Both treatments caused an increase in bulb mass up to 37.7 and 41.76 g at the concentrations of 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively, compared with the control (31.47 g). The number of bulbs increased up to 10.6 and 9.8 g for 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations, respectively, compared with 8.8 in the control. The ploidy level of cells was increased from 2n (16) to 3n (24) at 2% and 4n (32) at 4% Bio-Catharantin.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Shallots (Allium cepa L.), Catharanthus roseus L., bio-catharantin, polyploid, chromosome number, phenotypic traits

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.11

Taxonomic assessment of Curculigo orchioides USING matK and rbcL DNA barcodes

V.T. HO, T.Q. DINH, and T.H. NGUYEN

SUMMARY 

Curculigo orchioides is most commonly used as an imperative medicinal plant in Vietnam. The plant roots are mainly used to treat sexual dysfunction, back pain, arthritis, nephritis, jaundice, and infertility. Given the high market demand in the herbal market, C. orchioides traders commonly adulterate with other similar plants for illegitimate benefits. Maturase K (matK) and ribulose 1,5biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) DNA barcode loci are presently used to identify the blends and counterfeit the medicinal herbs, as well as, identify the propagating conservation material. Nevertheless, the identification accuracy is highly dependent on NCBI Genbank or Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). In the recent study, the efficiency of DNA barcode loci, matK and (rbcL) for the classification of C. orchioides populations, was investigated during 2020–2021. After examining 11 accessions of C. orchioides collected from different locations in Vietnam, the obtained results revealed that using NCBI database is more effective for classifying C. orchioides. In addition, the matK locus also showed higher identification power than (rbcL) . The obtained findings could be helpful in the trading management, conservation, and development of C. orchioides in Vietnam.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: BOLD, classification, Curculigo orchioides, DNA barcodes, matK, NCBI Genbank, rbcL

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.16

Isolation and diagnosis of cadmium-resistant bacteria and its potential phytoremediation with the broad bean plant

I.A. ABED, A. MARZOOG, A.M.S. ADDAHERI, and M.H. AL-ISSAWI

SUMMARY

Results of the study proved that phytoremediation can be a promising technique to treat cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil. Four bacteria types were isolated from the soil; two are autotrophic and others are heterotrophic. Autotrophic bacteria were dominant in soils with 42 mg Cd Kg-1. The total count and diversity of both bacteria types decreased with the increase of Cd in media and reached their minimum limit of tolerance at 60 mg Cd L-1 in terms of the heterotrophic bacteria, while the minimum limit of tolerance in the case of autotrophic bacteria was at 110 mg Cd L-1. The four isolates can form biofilms that ranged in thickness between 2.8–4.3 mm. The tolerant isolates belong to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Actinobacteria, and Corynebacterium. Shoot and dry weight significantly varied according to the changes in Cd concentrations and isolate types. The level in either shoot or root exceeded critical levels, however, its concentration was higher in the root compared with the shoot. The effect of Cd on broad bean plants began at 80 and 100 mg Cd L-1. The broad bean plant was resistant to growing in the contaminated area by Cd even at 120 mg Cd Kg1DW. The presence of heterotrophic bacteria was noticeably useful for autotrophic bacteria, as well as, for enhancing Cd resistance. The study showed that cooperative phytoremediation could be a safe and active technique to apply in the field soil contaminated with heavy metals.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Broad bean, cadmium, heavy metals, pollution, resistant bacteria 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.17