Author Archive Kaye1214

Characterization of bread wheat segregating populations under optimum irrigation and water stress conditions

D.A. SWELAM, A.H. SALEM, M.A. HASSAN, and M.M.A. ALI

SUMMARY

Water scarcity is currently threatening almost every country in the arid regions. Using advanced generations, breeding can help in the development of improved bread wheat genotypes for adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. The pedigree selection was practiced on two bread wheat crosses (Sids 12 × Line 44) and (Line 20 × Sakha 93) during two seasons (2017−2018 and 2018–2019) under full irrigation (optimal conditions) and limited irrigation (drought-stressed) conditions at Kafer El-Hamam Agriculture Station, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. The results indicated significant differences in two crosses of F2 and F3 families for all the studied traits under optimal irrigation and water stress. The estimates of phenotypic coefficients of variability (PCV) were slightly higher than those of genotypic coefficients of variability (GCV) for all the traits in two crosses of both water regimes. Broad-sense heritability (h2 Bs) estimates, accompanied with high magnitudes of the genetic advance (GA), were higher under optimal irrigation than water stress in F2 and F3 generations of two crosses. A positive correlation was recorded between spikes per plant and grain yield in both water treatments of two crosses. A positive correlation (r) was revealed between offsprings (F3) and their parents (F2) in yield and its components under optimal irrigation and water stress conditions. Hence, the hybridization followed by selection under optimal and drought stress conditions have been a demand to accelerate the genetic gain of wheat grain yield.

 

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Date Published: June 2022

Keywords: Wheat, selection parameters, heritability, genetic advance, water stress

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.6

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In vitro mutagenesis and propagation of Paulownia tomentosa (Thumb) for salt tolerance

M.E.A.E. AHMED, T.M. ABD ELAZIEM, and A.A. NOWER

SUMMARY

The study aimed to refine a protocol for micropropagation and to develop the plant’s ability to withstand salinity by the use of physical and chemical mutations, so that it can be cultivated in new lands that are not suitable for other crops. Shoot tips and stem segments of Paulownia tomentosa were firstly sterilized and cultured on different media types containing benzyl amino purine (BAP) at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/l to choose the best combination for explant growth and proliferation. To examine the plant’s ability to withstand salinity, Paulownia tomentosa shoots were first irradiated with the doses of gamma rays at 0.0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 Gray (Gy) and secondly, cultured on a WPM medium containing sodium azide “NaN3” at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8. and 1.0 mM for 5 min. Both irradiated and NaN3-treated shoots were cultured on different levels of NaCl. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) technique was used to detect variations caused by gamma rays and NaN3. Results showed that at 120 Gy of gamma-ray, one fragment with primer UBC824 vanished and one fragment with primer 17898B at 150 Gy appeared. In comparison, one fragment with primer either UBC873 or UBC867 at 1.0 mM and 0.8 mM of NaN3, respectively, can be considered a positive marker of Paulownia salt tolerance. Treated shoots gave the greatest number of roots/shoot (6.0) on WPM half strength with NAA at 2.0 mg/l. Increasing gamma doses or NaN3 concentrations decreased survival rate. Variation created by mutation provides the raw material for natural selection and is a driving force in evolution. Keywords: Gamma-ray, mutagenesis, NaN3, Paulownia tomentosa, proliferation, salt tolerance, tissue culture Key findings: At 120 Gy of gamma-ray, one fragment with primer UBC824 vanished and one fragment with primer 17898B at 150 Gy appeared. In comparison, one fragment with primer either UBC873 or UBC867 at 1.0 mM and 0.8 mM of NaN3, respectively, and one fragment with primer UBC828 at 0.8 mM of NaN3 appeared, which can be considered as a positive marker of Paulownia linked to salt tolerance.

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Date Published: June 2022

Keywords: Gamma-ray, mutagenesis, NaN3, Paulownia tomentosa, proliferation, salt tolerance, tissue culture

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.8

Phenotypic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L. Walp) genotypes assessed with quantitative and qualitative characters

Onwubiko NC

Phenotypic variation among six Nigerian cowpea genotypes was established on the basis of quantitative and qualitative characters. Except for leaf area and harvest index, quantitative characters showed significant differences. Stem and pod color and leaf and seed color showed variation among genotypes. Seed size had the least variation. Quantitative and qualitative characters were useful for assessing morphological variability and discriminating cowpea accessions.

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Onwubiko NC (2020). Phenotypic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L. Walp) genotypes assessed with quantitative and qualitative characters. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):191–201.

Genetic Diversity of Cucumis and Mukia (Cucurbitaceae) based on ISSR markers

Pratami MP, Chikmawati T, Rugayah

Published: June 2020

A total of 53 Cucumis cultivars and 43 Mukia accessions were verified through genetic diversity analysis based on inter simple sequence repeat markers. The amplification of Cucumis and Mukia DNA by using 20 ISSR primers produced 246 bands and 245 polymorphic bands. Mukia javanica (Miq.) C. Jeffrey (0.101) showed the highest diversity, whereas Mukia maderaspatana L. (0.037) showed the lowest diversity. Principal component analysis grouped Cucumis and Mukia accessions into four groups.

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Pratami MP, Chikmawati T, Rugayah (2020) Genetic diversity of Cucumis and Mukia (Cucurbitaceae) based on ISSR markers. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):127–143.

Agronomic characters and seed protein content of soybean (Glycine max [l.] Merr.) Lines across environments

Kuswantoro H, Ginting E, Yuniarti N, Artari R, Rahajeng W, Purwatoro, Nugrahaeni N

Published: June 2020

The agronomic performance and seed protein contents of 49 soybean lines were investigated in two environments. Location, genotype, and genotype × environment interactions influenced the investigated characteristics. The agronomic characteristics and protein content of the 49 soybean lines varied between locations, and protein and methionine content varied across genotypes.

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Kuswantoro H, Ginting E, Yuniarti N, Artari R, Rahajeng W, Purwatoro, Nugrahaeni N (2020). Agronomic characters and seed protein content of soybean (Glycine max [l.] Merr.) Lines across environments. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):91–108.

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SABRAO JOURNAL of BREEDING and GENETICS Volume 50 Issue 2 June 2018

Pest species composition of fragrant trees in the parks and gardens of Yerevan City, Armenia

A.H. BABAYAN

SUMMARY

Several fragrant tree species, i.e., Aesculus hippocastanum, Magnolia brooklynensis “Yellow Bird”, Catalpa bignonioides, and Prunus serrulata were previously registered in the database. A. hippocastanum, Ailanthus altíssima, C. bignonioides, and Robinia pseudoacacia were found to be the most common and important species in the parks and gardens of Yerevan, Armenia. These species were found in almost all of the studied gardens. The present study aimed to investigate the species composition of the pests of fragrant trees in different landscaped areas of Yerevan, Armenia, during 2020–2021. This study found 48 species of pests of fragrant trees in various parks and gardens. The species belonged to three taxonomic classes, 11 orders, and 33 families. These pest species significantly suppressed the growth and development of fragrant trees, and in some cases, even caused the trees to dry out. In the early spring, the pest species Parthenolecanium corni Bouche., Euproctis chrysorrhoea, Aphis laburni Kalt., Myzus cerasi, Panonychus ulmi, Tetranychus urticae, and Schizotetranychus pruni were observed on fragrant plants. Notably, this study revealed six species of fragrant tree pests, of which four, i.e., Dasineura gleditchiae, Halyomorpha halys, Trioza neglecta, and Calophya rhois, were found for the first time in the fauna of Armenia, and two, i.e., Obolodiplosis robiniae and Euura tibialis, were found previously in Tavush Region, Dilijan, Armenia.

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Keywords: Fragrant trees, pests species composition, harmful insects, mites and nematodes, Yerevan, Armenia

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.19

Phenology of elm seed bug (Arocatus melanocephalus) in Almaty City of Southeastern Kazakhstan

A.S. MYRKASSIMOVA, S.N. DEMEUOV and K. KULANBAYM

SUMMARY

The phenology of the elm seed bug (Arocatus melanocephalus) and the effects of environmental factors on its population dynamics were studied during the months of May and June from 2016 to 2019 in the Almaty region, Kazakhstan. The study comprised the sampling of 15 elm trees at 10 different selected sites. The insects were caught using entomological nets for population dynamics studies. The extent of leaf damage was determined by measuring the damaged square area using Blunk’s formula. In the Almaty region, the elm seed bug laid eggs in mid-April, and the imago appeared in mid-June. The insect laid eggs on the regenerative organs of the elm trees and caused significant damage to the leaves, ranging from 60%–95%. However, the significant leaf damage was not caused by the said elm trees insect as what is common in other regions of the world. In the Almaty region, the elm tree foliar damage is notably made by bugs. A negative correlation was recorded between the insect population and rainfall during May. The elm seed bug reproduction and growth occurred, and population size grew during May and June, but, no correlation was found on temperature for these two months. The present results would help in understanding the phenology and population dynamics of the elm seed bug and design the strategies for its control.

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Keywords: Arocatus melanocephalus, phenology, population dynamics, temperature, rainfall, environmental factors

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.18

Coenoflora of Spiraeanthus Schrenkianus (Fisch. and C.A. Mey.) Maxim.

A.M. ABEKOVA, R.S. YERZHEBAYEVA, S.O. BASTAUBAYEVA, K. KONUSBEKOV, T.A BAZYLOVA., D.I. BABISSEKOVA, and A.A. AMANGELDIYEVA

SUMMARY

Spiraeanthus schrenkianus (Fisch. and C.A. Mey.) Maxim is a plant species that belongs to the family Rosaceae, endemic to Kazakhstan and possibly Kyrgyzstan, but as an endangered species. This shrub is one of the oldest plants on our planet, however, little is known about the plants that co-exist with the S. schrenkianus. Knowledge about the coenoflora of endemic and endangered species is fundamental for a more accurate understanding of the potential threats on the plant’s existence. To fill up this gap, the 15 coenopopulations of S. schrenkianus found in the Boraldaytau Mountains (Central part of the Syrdarya Karatau, Kazakhstan) and seven coenopopulations from the Betpak-Dala desert of Kazakhstan were analyzed. The coenoflora of S. schrenkianus consists of 232 species belonging to 146 genera and 41 families. The coenoflora from Syrdarya Karatau differed significantly from the Betpak-Dala desert, where only seven species occur together i.e., Adonis parviflora, Anisantha tectorum, Atraphaxis spinosa, Euphorbia falcata, Ixiolirion tataricum, Poa bulbosa, and Tulipa greigii. The similarity dendrogram of coenopopulations revealed greater differences in the floral composition of the plant communities, suggesting a disjunctive range in the target areas like Syrdarya Karatau, and the Betpak-Dala desert, Kazakhstan. The stability of S. schrenkianus is related to the ancient relict characters of the species formed in the Paleogene’s arid conditions.

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Keywords: Coenopopulation, species composition, ecological-coenotic groups, Spiraeanthus schrenkianus, Kazakhstan

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.17

Molecular phylogeny of Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium [Jack] Ridl.) inferred from trnL-F intergenic spacer sequences

FITMAWATI, DESTI, E. JULIANTARI, D. NOVELA, and H. KAPLI

SUMMARY

Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium [Jack] Ridl.) has a stronger wood quality and is resistant to tidal deformations. For centuries, the local people are traditionally using nibung for different purposes. However, its utilization is higher than its cultivation, causing a decrease in supply every year. Taxonomic data based on molecular markers are urgently needed in the nibung germplasm. We need to study their molecular characters to provide basic data for genetic diversity and conservation study purposes. The present study aims to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of seven accessions of nibung in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, based on molecular characters and to clarify the relationship among closely related infra-specific categories. The seven accessions of nibung were grouped by types of habitats i.e., lowland and highland areas. Accessions collected from the highland areas (Bukit Suligi) were very different from those collected from the lowland areas based on their genetic and evolutionary data. Based on Neighbor-Joining (NJ) analysis, it is estimated that the accession O. tigillarium from Bukit Suligi was more advanced than another accession. The present study has been able to compare more primitive and advanced accessions based on genetic distance. The studies also confirmed that the more advanced species are highly capable to survive in their in situ environment. Such type of genetic variability is very important for breeding and conservation studies and can be used in future generations of palm.

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Keywords: DNA barcoding, trnL-F intergenic spacer, nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium), Riau – Indonesia

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.16