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Comparative biochemical composition of the sweet cherry fruits

S.M. MOTYLEVA, A.A. BORISOVA, I.M. KULIKOV, and T.A. TUMAEVA

SUMMARY

Comparative studies on the complex biochemical indicators of the fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were conducted as a new focus, to recognize their genotypes. Eight sweet cherry cultivars were procured from the Federal Horticultural Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology, and Nursery (FSBSO ARHCBAN), Moscow, Russia, namely, Moskvoretskaya, Chermashnaya, Italyanka, Iput, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Sinyavskaya, and Podarok Ryazani, and two cultivars, i.e., Regina and Krasa Kuban from Azerbaijan and the Southern Federal District of Russia (Republic of Crimea), respectively. The studies were conducted through traditional (potentiometry, refractometry, and spectrophotometry) and modern analytical (energy-dispersive spectrometry, gas chromate-massspectrometry) methods. Considerable genetic variations were detected among the evaluated cultivars of the sweet cherry for all studied traits. The most harmonized taste from the balanced content of acids and sugars in the fruits is noted with the sweet cherry cultivars, i.e., Sinyavskaya, Fatezh, Krasa Kubani, Podarok Ryazani, and Regina. Cultivars Italyanka, Sinyavskaya, and Podarok Ryazani have 2.3, 3.5, and 4.2 times more, respectively, phenolic compounds than the cultivar Krasa Kubani. The following decreasing order of the accumulation of various macro and micro-elements was observed in the sweet cherry fruits, i.e., K > P > Mо > Mg > Ca > Se > Co > Mn > Fe > Zn. The comparison of sweet cherry fruits‟ metabolomic profiles revealed the composition of organic and phenolic acids, sugar alcohols, carbohydrates and their derivatives, amino acids, and other compounds. In total, 41 individual compounds were determined. In sweet cherry fruits, carbohydrates are presented by monosaccharides, which are the components of a healthy diet, and their derivatives. Among organic acids, the most significant differences were detected in the presence of arabinoic, fumaric, and erythro-pentonic acids; fatty acids found in sweet cherries are valuable for human nutrition. The biologically active substances, i.e., kojic acid and myo-inositol, were also detected in the sweet cherry cultivars, Moskvoretskaya, Fatezh, Podarok Ryazani, Sinyavskaya, Krasa Kubani, and Regina. The metabolome is an important biochemical indicator of the plant’s phenotype and it allows to reveal hidden differences in their genotypes.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Prunus avium L. fruits, promising varieties, biologically active substances, mineral composition, metabolites

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.12

Integrated corn cultivation technology based on morphology, drone imaging, and participatory plant breeding

M. FARID, F. DJUFRY, A. YASSI, M.F. ANSHORI, Y. MUSA, NASARUDDIN, M. AQIL, A.F. ADZIMA, H. ISWOYO, M.H. JAMIL, and S. PATI

SUMMARY

The evaluation of a cultivation technology would be more efficient when the technology assessment is based on various approaches like conventional morphological approaches, the use of drone’s normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) imaging, and participatory plant breeding (PPB). The recent study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the combination of morphological approaches, drone imaging, and participatory plant breeding in selecting the best corn cultivation technology package. This research conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with one factor from March to December 2021 at the Village Taroang, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The factor is 40 cultivation technology packages. The treatments were replicated three times, thus having 120 experimental units. For plant participation, the investigations were conducted with 56 farmers on their corn fields through quantitative surveys in the targeted area. For NDVI, the observation was recorded 70 days after planting using a DJI Inspire two unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a multi-spectral camera. Based on the results of the study, the combined strategy of different approaches like morphophysiological, drone’s NDVI, and participatory plant breeding is found effective in evaluating the corn production technology. The yield, plant height, percentage of net yield, and cob weight were good selection criteria for the morphology approach in evaluating corn cultivation. The NDVI could be recommended in helping the morphology evaluation and PPB, especially in a large-scale evaluation. Based on a combined assessment of the different approaches, the maize cultivar Pioneer-27 combined with ‘Legowo’ spacing technology, NPK fertilizer ratio of 200:100:50, KNO3 at the rate of 25 kg, and application of biofertilizer ‘Eco farming’ @ 5 cc L-1, was recommended as the best corn production technology package in the Village Taroang, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Corn cultivation, NDVI, PPB, morphological approach, multivariate analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.5