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Validation of molecular markers linked to cercospora leaf spot disease resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek)

Papan P, Chueakhunthod W, Poolsawat O, Arsakit K, Tharapreuksapong A, Tantasawat PA

SUMMARY

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) resistance is a highly desirable trait for mungbean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) production in Thailand. ‘V4718’ is a vital resistance source that shows high and stable resistance to CLS disease. A previous study identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) (qCLSC72V18-1) controlling CLS resistance and found the marker (I16274) that was located closest to the resistance gene by using F2:9 and F2:10 recombinant inbred line populations derived through a cross between ‘V4718’ and the susceptible variety ‘Chai Nat 72’ (‘CN72’). Here, we evaluated three newly reported simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one InDel marker together with six previously identified markers that were linked to qCLSC72V18-1 to further identify the markers that were located close to this QTL. By performing bulk segregant analysis on two validation populations, we found that two SSR markers (Vr6gCLS037 and Vr6gCLS133) and one InDel marker (VrTAF5_indel) were putatively associated with CLS resistance. Of these markers, only the VrTAF5_indel marker showed a significant association with the CLS resistance gene with a logarithm of odds score > 3 across the phenotypic data for 2016 and 2018. QTL analysis with inclusive composite interval mapping revealed that the VrTAF5_indel marker was integrated into the genetic map with other previously identified markers. The I16274 and VrTAF5_indel markers flanking the QTL of interest accounted for 41.56%-60.38% of the phenotypic variation with genetic distances of 4.0 and 5.0 cM from the resistance gene, respectively. Both markers together permitted only 0.40% recombination with the CLS resistance gene in markerassisted selection and thus could be useful in future breeding efforts for CLS resistance in mungbean.

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Keywords: Cercospora leaf spot, inclusive composite interval mapping, marker-assisted selection, mungbean, quantitative trait loci analysis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.16

Chili pepper genotypes assay approach for resistance to Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera:Aphididae)

Daryanto A, Syukur M, Sobir, Maharijaya A, Hidayat P

SUMMARY

The cotton aphid (Aphis gossypi), is one of the most devastating insect pests for chili pepper that damages the crop and transmits several viruses. Thus far, there is no commercial chili cultivar with effective resistance to cotton aphids (CA). The present study aimed to develop a reliable and practical screening protocol in chili peppers for aphids resistance in the tropical areas. Three no-choice test methods i.e., seedling cage, detached leaf, and clip cage tests have been developed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in a greenhouse at the Gunung Putri, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Seven chili pepper genotypes belong to the species Capsicum annuum L. provided by the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia were used in this study. Chili pepper resistance to aphids was observed through the number of aphids progeny, and aphids fecundity among the genotypes. Two chili genotypes consistently showed low infestation while other genotypes showed the highest infestation with three screening methods. All the methods have a high heritability value (90%–91%), indicating that the evaluated chili genotypes could be used to determine effective screening methods. The correlation between the detached leaf and clip cage tests was significant (r = 0.84, P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the clip cage test could be used as a reliable and practical screening test for the assay of chili peppers resistance to CA infestation. These information will be helpful in the development of aphid resistant cultivars in the future.

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Keywords: Clip cage, cotton aphids, detached leaf, no-choice tests, seedling phase

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.15

Genetic profiles of three Cinchona species in Junghuhn Natural Reserve, Indonesia

Sasongko ND, Yuniati A, Gayo Billmora LA

SUMMARY

Cinchona species were widely used as ancient medicines for different diseases because they contain the active component quinine and its derivatives. However, studies on the molecular aspects of cinchona, including its genetic diversity, have not been reported because most previous works focused on the administration of the antimalarial cinchona alkaloid. Quinine is also being tested as alternative compound for the treatment of Covid-19. The Junghuhn Natural Reserve in Indonesia contains three different types of cinchona plants, namely, Cinchona calisaya, Cinchona pubescens, and Cinchona sp. Given that the genetic diversity and kinship of these species have never been studied, collecting data on the cinchona gene pool has become imperative. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of the cinchona species in the Junghuhn Natural Reserve, Indonesia, by using eight RAPD markers, i.e., OPA-2, OPA-9, OPB-02, OPB-03, OPB-04, OPB-05, OPB-7, and OPJ-07, during 2020 at the University of Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto Indonesia. Polymorphic band data were obtained. Then, phenogram analysis was conducted by using UPGMA and maximum parsimony with MEGA7. The RAPD profiles of Cinchona species (C. calisaya, C. pubescent, and Cinchona sp.) revealed polymorphism with different markers, i.e., OPA-2 (90%), OPB-2 (75%), OPB-5 (75%), OPB-3 (66.66%), OPB-4 (66.66%), OPB-7 (66.66%), OPJ-7 (66.66%), and OPA-9 (58.33%) sequentially with total polymorphism (70.62%). C. calisaya was identified as the most distinctive species. UPGMA yielded a coefficient of 0.200 and two distinctive groups: Group I, which comprised C. pubescens and Cinchona sp. with the pdistance value of 0.333, and Group II, which contained C. calisaya. Ixora sp. was treated as an outgroup plant. The topology of the dendrogram was consistent with that of the UPGMA dendrogram. Results may be used for the further exploration of the genetic diversity of cinchona species.

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Keywords: Cinchona species, genetic diversity, RAPD markers, polymorphism, UPGMA analysis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.12

Drought effects on the mineral composition of the leaves of actinidia species

Tetyannikov NV, Кozak NV, Panischeva DV, Mertvischeva ME, Gins MS, Kаbashnikova LF, Domanskaya IN, Pilipovich TS

SUMMARY

Against the background of global climate change, drought stress has become one of the environmental limiting factors that can significantly influence the growth and development of crop plants. Drought stress conditions also cause changes in plant physiological and metabolic processes. The influence of soil drought on the mineral composition of the leaves of two Actinidia species with С3-type photosynthesis, namely, Actinidia argutа (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. cultivar ‘Taezhny Dar’ and Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. & Rupr.) Maxim. cultivar ‘Narodnaya’, was studied through energy dispersive spectrometry. The investigations were carried out during 2020 to 2021 at the Department of Genofonde and Bioresources of Plants, Federal Scientific Center for Horticulture, Moscow. The present research revealed that actinidia leaves contained the following major elements: K (11.19 mass% to 13.84 mass%), Ca (7.83% to 12.08 mass%), Cl (6.20 mass% to 7.33 mass%), and Mg (2.98 mass% to 3.44 mass%). Low values were recorded for Mo (1.19 mass% to 4.49 mass%) and P (0.83 mass% to 1.25 mass%). In both species, the mineral elements K and Ca were present at high levels. A positive correlation was observed between Mg–P, KMn, Mn–Se, Cu-Se, P–Si, Na–Mo, and Si–Mn in the leaves of A. argutа and between Cl–Ca, Mo; P–Si, Mo; and K–Ca in the leaves of A. kolomikta. Under stress conditions, the ratios of K/Ca and K/P declined to 0.9 and 6.3, respectively, whereas those of K/Cl, K/Mg, and K/Mo increased to 3.8, 4.4, and 2.7, respectively. The present studies confirmed that actinidia leaves contained high concentrations of minerals, especially K, Ca, P, and Mg, and that the accumulation of mineral elements in actinidia plant leaves under drought conditions varied depending on the species.

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Keywords: Mineral composition, leaves, drought stress, EDS analysis, Actinidia argutа, Actinidia kolomikta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.13

Expression of some salt tolerance genes isolated from Egyptian gray mangrove (Avicennia marina)

El-Atawy AA, Rizk MS, El-Demerdash ES, Ahmed MZS

SUMMARY

Mangroves are well-adapted halophytes that thrive in coastal saline environments. They live under difficult environmental conditions, such as high light intensity and external salt concentrations, as well as low-oxygen environments, such as water-logged muck, that are typically inappropriate for the survival of other plants. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that affects plant growth, productivity, and dispersal in tropical and semitropical intertidal areas. Furthermore, it affects approximately 20% of all cultivable land and 50% of all irrigated land on the planet. Mangroves have developed a sophisticated salt filtration mechanism and a complicated root structure to withstand salty water exposure and tidal movement. The expression patterns of five salt tolerance genes (amFer1, amDhna, amSod1, amCat1, and amUbc2) in the Egyptian gray mangrove (Avicennia marina Forssk.) grown under different environmental conditions in South Sinai protectorates (Nabq, Ras Mohamed, Safaga, and Wadi El-Gemal), Egypt, were investigated in this study. This study aimed to assess and examine the genetic behavior of mangroves in response to salinity by using quantitative real-time PCR. Findings revealed differences in the expression patterns of the investigated genes under various conditions, showing that salinity influences plant genetic response. Ferritin gene expression was high in all locations, indicating that ferritin represents an essential component of the mangrove response mechanisms.

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Keywords: Mangrove (Avicennia marina), (amFer1, amDhna, amSod1, amCat1, and amUbc2), salt tolerance genes, quantitative real-time PCR

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.11

Adoption and adaptability of modern Aman rice cultivars in Faridpur Region – Bangladesh

Chakrobarty T, Asadulla Al Galib M, Zahidul Islam M, Akhlasur Rahman M

SUMMARY

Rice is not just a staple food; but it is at the center of culture, politics, and economy of Bangladesh. The determinants affecting the adoption of modern rice cultivars and their adaptability in the Aman season (June to November) at the Faridpur region in Bangladesh were discussed. A total of 500 farmers from five different districts such as, Faridpur, Madaripur, Shariatpur, Rajbari, and Gopalganj through multistage sampling technique participated in the survey. Before the survey, 15 farmers were selected for the cultivation of eight modern T. Aman rice cultivars in their fields during three consecutive years 2018 to 2020 in the mentioned five districts of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to identify the determinants associated with the adoption of modern rice cultivars by replacing the popular old ones. Results revealed that beyond preferences, some other determinants (age, education, risk aversion, land size, yield, and perception of modern rice cultivars and their seed availability) directed the decision to adopt or not. Considering the average grain yield of the tested rice cultivars, the genotypes BRRI dhan72 (G-6) and BRRI dhan87 (G 8) were the high yielding cultivars for the above five districts. Despite having a comparatively low yield, the cultivars BRRI dhan71 (G-4) and BRRI dhan49 (G-3) were more stable compared to other cultivars in the Faridpur region of Bangladesh.

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Keywords: Adoption, adaptability, heritability, GGE, Aman rice

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.9

Rubus idaeus L. fruit nutrients are affected by different growing technologies

Evdokimenko SN, Motyleva SM, Medvedev SM, Kulikov IM

SUMMARY

The biochemical compounds of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits cultivated with conventional growing technology and on a nutrient substrate were studied during 20192020 at the Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, Moscow, Russia. The antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and ash constituents of the fruits and the metabolites of the alcoholic extract of the raspberries were determined. The effect of growing technologies, i.e., conventional vs. nutrient substrate, on the accumulation of macro- and microelements in raspberry fruits was established. In red raspberries grown on nutrient substrate, the antioxidant activity decreased by 25 times (aqueous extract) and 1.5 times (alcoholic extract). The K and Na contents and Se contents of red raspberries grown on nutrient substrate were 1.5 and 3 times higher than those of raspberries of grown with conventional technology. Raspberries grown with conventional technology contained 2 times more Ca, Ni, and Mn and 7.4 times more Fe than raspberries grown on nutrient substrate. The total amount of elements in raspberries grown through soilless cultivation was 5.5% higher than that in berries grown conventionally. A total of 48 compounds were identified in the alcoholic extracts, and only 29 substances were found in berries grown on a nutrient substrate. Sugar and citric acid constituted the largest share of red raspberry components. Fructose and turanose disaccharide synthesis in raspberries grown on nutrient substrate was 20% higher than that in conventionally grown raspberries. A total of 48 organic compounds with different biological activities were identified. They included five substances with antimicrobial activity, three phenolic substances, eight organic acids, four sugar acids, nine amino acids, and 19 sugars and their derivatives. At the same time, 42 compounds were found in raspberries grown with traditional technology, and 21 compounds were identified in raspberry fruits grown on nutrient substrate. Three fatty acids, namely, ɑ-linoleic acid (polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid), palmitic acid, and stearic acid (saturated fatty acid), along with cinnamic acid, shikimic acid, and chrysin were found in berries grown conventionally.

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Keywords: Rubus idaeus L., conventional growing, nutrient substrate, nutrients, antioxidant activity, ash constituents of fruits, metabolites, bioactive compounds

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.8

Improvement of the submergence stress tolerance of local South Sumatran rice through the introgression of the Sub1 gene by using marker-assisted selection

Adriansyah F, Hasmeda M, Suwignyo RA, Halimi ES, Sarimana U

SUMMARY

Submergence stress due to unpredictable soil flooding is one of the mainconstraints encountered in rainfed growing areas, especially in Southern Sumatran riparian swamps. The development of submergence-stress-tolerant cultivars through the introgression of Sub1 via marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an ideal solution. This study was carried out during 2020 at Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia, with the aim to select Sub1-introgressed lines in BC3F1 generations on the basis of MABC and to screen out the SSR markers that were unlinked to the target gene for application in subsequent background selection studies. Results revealed that almost all the backcrossed progenies segregated from the rice parental cultivars ‘FR13A’ and ‘Pegagan’. The backcrossed lines showed significantly improved submergence stress tolerance and recovery rates compared with their parents. Sub1 introgression into the BC3F1 generation was confirmed by the tightly linked Sub1 marker SUB1C173, and marker RM23915 was used for recombinant selection. These markers followed the expected marker segregation ratio in accordance with the Mendelian single gene model. In the parental polymorphism survey, 84 out of 237 SSR markers that were unlinked to the target loci were found to be available for background study. Twenty-seven backcrossed lines were selected on the basis of foreground selection. Seven plants were selected on the basis of the recombinant marker RM23915. Five backcrossed lines were further selected on the basis of submergence stress tolerance and agronomic performance.

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Keywords: Backcrossing, SSR markers, Sub1 gene, submergence tolerance, Oryza sativa L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.3