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Identification of the secondary metabolite capsiate in Capsicum germplasm accessions.

Tarinta T, Chanthai S, Lertrat K, Nawata E, Techawongstien S

Nineteen pepper accessions were evaluated for high capsiate levels without capsaicin. The presence of capsiate and capsaicin were evaluated by using two DNA markers. The KKU-P31146 accession showed the highest capsiate levels without capsaicin and could be used as a new source for breeding high-CAT accessions.

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Tarinta T, Chanthai S, Lertrat K, Nawata E, Techawongstien S (2020). Identification of the secondary metabolite capsiate in Capsicum germplasm accessions. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):144–157.

Agronomic characters and seed protein content of soybean (Glycine max [l.] Merr.) Lines across environments

Kuswantoro H, Ginting E, Yuniarti N, Artari R, Rahajeng W, Purwatoro, Nugrahaeni N

Published: June 2020

The agronomic performance and seed protein contents of 49 soybean lines were investigated in two environments. Location, genotype, and genotype × environment interactions influenced the investigated characteristics. The agronomic characteristics and protein content of the 49 soybean lines varied between locations, and protein and methionine content varied across genotypes.

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Kuswantoro H, Ginting E, Yuniarti N, Artari R, Rahajeng W, Purwatoro, Nugrahaeni N (2020). Agronomic characters and seed protein content of soybean (Glycine max [l.] Merr.) Lines across environments. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):91–108.

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Pest species composition of fragrant trees in the parks and gardens of Yerevan City, Armenia

A.H. BABAYAN

SUMMARY

Several fragrant tree species, i.e., Aesculus hippocastanum, Magnolia brooklynensis “Yellow Bird”, Catalpa bignonioides, and Prunus serrulata were previously registered in the database. A. hippocastanum, Ailanthus altíssima, C. bignonioides, and Robinia pseudoacacia were found to be the most common and important species in the parks and gardens of Yerevan, Armenia. These species were found in almost all of the studied gardens. The present study aimed to investigate the species composition of the pests of fragrant trees in different landscaped areas of Yerevan, Armenia, during 2020–2021. This study found 48 species of pests of fragrant trees in various parks and gardens. The species belonged to three taxonomic classes, 11 orders, and 33 families. These pest species significantly suppressed the growth and development of fragrant trees, and in some cases, even caused the trees to dry out. In the early spring, the pest species Parthenolecanium corni Bouche., Euproctis chrysorrhoea, Aphis laburni Kalt., Myzus cerasi, Panonychus ulmi, Tetranychus urticae, and Schizotetranychus pruni were observed on fragrant plants. Notably, this study revealed six species of fragrant tree pests, of which four, i.e., Dasineura gleditchiae, Halyomorpha halys, Trioza neglecta, and Calophya rhois, were found for the first time in the fauna of Armenia, and two, i.e., Obolodiplosis robiniae and Euura tibialis, were found previously in Tavush Region, Dilijan, Armenia.

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Keywords: Fragrant trees, pests species composition, harmful insects, mites and nematodes, Yerevan, Armenia

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.19

Phenology of elm seed bug (Arocatus melanocephalus) in Almaty City of Southeastern Kazakhstan

A.S. MYRKASSIMOVA, S.N. DEMEUOV and K. KULANBAYM

SUMMARY

The phenology of the elm seed bug (Arocatus melanocephalus) and the effects of environmental factors on its population dynamics were studied during the months of May and June from 2016 to 2019 in the Almaty region, Kazakhstan. The study comprised the sampling of 15 elm trees at 10 different selected sites. The insects were caught using entomological nets for population dynamics studies. The extent of leaf damage was determined by measuring the damaged square area using Blunk’s formula. In the Almaty region, the elm seed bug laid eggs in mid-April, and the imago appeared in mid-June. The insect laid eggs on the regenerative organs of the elm trees and caused significant damage to the leaves, ranging from 60%–95%. However, the significant leaf damage was not caused by the said elm trees insect as what is common in other regions of the world. In the Almaty region, the elm tree foliar damage is notably made by bugs. A negative correlation was recorded between the insect population and rainfall during May. The elm seed bug reproduction and growth occurred, and population size grew during May and June, but, no correlation was found on temperature for these two months. The present results would help in understanding the phenology and population dynamics of the elm seed bug and design the strategies for its control.

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Keywords: Arocatus melanocephalus, phenology, population dynamics, temperature, rainfall, environmental factors

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.18

Coenoflora of Spiraeanthus Schrenkianus (Fisch. and C.A. Mey.) Maxim.

A.M. ABEKOVA, R.S. YERZHEBAYEVA, S.O. BASTAUBAYEVA, K. KONUSBEKOV, T.A BAZYLOVA., D.I. BABISSEKOVA, and A.A. AMANGELDIYEVA

SUMMARY

Spiraeanthus schrenkianus (Fisch. and C.A. Mey.) Maxim is a plant species that belongs to the family Rosaceae, endemic to Kazakhstan and possibly Kyrgyzstan, but as an endangered species. This shrub is one of the oldest plants on our planet, however, little is known about the plants that co-exist with the S. schrenkianus. Knowledge about the coenoflora of endemic and endangered species is fundamental for a more accurate understanding of the potential threats on the plant’s existence. To fill up this gap, the 15 coenopopulations of S. schrenkianus found in the Boraldaytau Mountains (Central part of the Syrdarya Karatau, Kazakhstan) and seven coenopopulations from the Betpak-Dala desert of Kazakhstan were analyzed. The coenoflora of S. schrenkianus consists of 232 species belonging to 146 genera and 41 families. The coenoflora from Syrdarya Karatau differed significantly from the Betpak-Dala desert, where only seven species occur together i.e., Adonis parviflora, Anisantha tectorum, Atraphaxis spinosa, Euphorbia falcata, Ixiolirion tataricum, Poa bulbosa, and Tulipa greigii. The similarity dendrogram of coenopopulations revealed greater differences in the floral composition of the plant communities, suggesting a disjunctive range in the target areas like Syrdarya Karatau, and the Betpak-Dala desert, Kazakhstan. The stability of S. schrenkianus is related to the ancient relict characters of the species formed in the Paleogene’s arid conditions.

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Keywords: Coenopopulation, species composition, ecological-coenotic groups, Spiraeanthus schrenkianus, Kazakhstan

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.17

Molecular phylogeny of Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium [Jack] Ridl.) inferred from trnL-F intergenic spacer sequences

FITMAWATI, DESTI, E. JULIANTARI, D. NOVELA, and H. KAPLI

SUMMARY

Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium [Jack] Ridl.) has a stronger wood quality and is resistant to tidal deformations. For centuries, the local people are traditionally using nibung for different purposes. However, its utilization is higher than its cultivation, causing a decrease in supply every year. Taxonomic data based on molecular markers are urgently needed in the nibung germplasm. We need to study their molecular characters to provide basic data for genetic diversity and conservation study purposes. The present study aims to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of seven accessions of nibung in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, based on molecular characters and to clarify the relationship among closely related infra-specific categories. The seven accessions of nibung were grouped by types of habitats i.e., lowland and highland areas. Accessions collected from the highland areas (Bukit Suligi) were very different from those collected from the lowland areas based on their genetic and evolutionary data. Based on Neighbor-Joining (NJ) analysis, it is estimated that the accession O. tigillarium from Bukit Suligi was more advanced than another accession. The present study has been able to compare more primitive and advanced accessions based on genetic distance. The studies also confirmed that the more advanced species are highly capable to survive in their in situ environment. Such type of genetic variability is very important for breeding and conservation studies and can be used in future generations of palm.

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Keywords: DNA barcoding, trnL-F intergenic spacer, nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium), Riau – Indonesia

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.16

Storage of extruded cereal and legume grain bases in ion-ozone medium

D.A. SHAIMERDENOVA, Zh.M. CHAKANOVA, D.M. ISKAKOVA1, G.T. SARBASSOVA, M.B. BEKBOLATOVA and A.A. YESMAMBETOV

SUMMARY

The modern food industry seeks to produce ecologically healthy and clean food products. However, finding effective means of storing raw materials without losing their quality is still a major problem faced by the industry. One of the promising methods on long-term storage of grain bases for good quality and safety is the ion-ozone cavitation treatment. Therefore, this study aims to determine the influence of various ion-ozone treatment parameters on the quality and safety factors of millet, buckwheat, chickpea, and lentil grain bases at the Food Quality and Safety Assessment Laboratory, Almaty University of Technology, Almaty, Kazakhstan. With ozonation, the buckwheat grain bases showed a significant increase in fatty acids, the millet and chickpea grains showed a slight increase, while the lentil seeds exhibited a slight decrease in fatty acids compared to the control. Overall, by treating with a low concentration of ion-ozone, the buckwheat showed fewer microorganisms; in chickpea grains the molds and yeast did not develop; in millet grains the yeast was absent and molds were not higher than control; and in lentil grain bases, the permissible yeast growth with no molds was observed. The storage life of extruded grain bases after ion-ozone cavitation treatment increased by a minimum of 60 days (millet) and to more than 240 days (buckwheat). The optimum basic parameters were determined, ensuring a maximum shelf life of up to eight months without losing the quality of the cereals and legume grain products. The said procedure was found as an effective measure for long-term storage of the extruded grain bases with sustainable safety and quality.

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Keywords: Chickpea, lentil, millet, buckwheat, storage, microorganisms, food quality and safety

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.15

Effect of zeolite on the micro-morphological and biochemical features of the spring rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

T.V. ZUBKOVA, D.V. VINOGRADOV and O.A. DUBROVINA

SUMMARY

The study aimed to assess the effect of a natural mineral fertilizer – zeolite on the micromorphological and biochemical characteristics of the spring rapeseed Brassica napus L. cv. “Rif”). Experiments were held at the Federal Research Center for Breeding, Agro-technics and Nursery Horticulture, Moscow, and Agro-industrial Institute, Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia from 2018 to 2020. The study scheme comprises four treatments as follows: a. control (no fertilizer), b. NPK @ 60-60-60 kg ha-1, c. Zeolite 5 t ha-1, and d. NPK @ 60-60-60 kg ha-1 + Zeolite 5 t ha-1. Results revealed that the maximum number of stomata was observed in the rapeseed crop treated with natural and mineral fertilizer – zeolite. On average, there were 537 pcs/mm2 on the adaxial surface, and 480 pcs/mm2 on the abaxial leaf surfaces. The mineral fertilizer application only, and in combination with a natural ameliorant, contributed an increase in photosynthetic pigments, which was about 22% more relative to the control. To determine the content of trace elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, and Ni) according to the phases of spring rapeseed development, the trace elements were decreased by the harvesting phase. The only exception was Co, where content was increased by the time of rapeseed ripening. The accumulation of the studied trace elements in spring rapeseed plants at maturity can be represented by the following decreasing series, Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Co. The correlation coefficients also revealed that there was a strong relationship among all the studied elements. A high correlation (r = 0.95) was found between the seed yield and the magnitude of the photosynthetic pigments.

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Keywords: Spring rapeseed, natural mineral fertilizer (zeolite), micromorphology, mineral composition, photosynthetic pigments, seed yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.14

Climatic and agronomic impacts on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production

S.O. BASTAUBAYEVA, L.K. TABYNBAYEVA, R.S. YERZHEBAYEVA, K. KONUSBEKOV, A.M. ABEKOVA and M.B. BEKBATYRO

SUMMARY

The use of suitable technologies helps crop cultivation under unfavorable and extreme weather conditions obtain the optimum yield by influencing irrigation, fertilization, sowing time, and crop density. The study aimed to determine the impact of adaptive technologies on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivation at the Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Plant Growing, Almaty Region, Kazakhstan. The phenological observations on basic phases of sugar beet growth and development, and plant density were done according to the generally accepted methods. Moreover, the photosynthetic activity of crop productivity was studied through the accumulation of raw and dry biomass (weight method), area determination of the assimilation apparatus (die-cutting method), and the advent of photosynthetic active radiation. The influence of meteorological conditions was particularly noted on plots with moisture deficit. Maintaining such pre-irrigation soil moisture at 60% of LMC (Least Moisture Capacity) requires less watering with large irrigation rates (1020-1260 m3 ha-1 ) with inter-irrigation periods of 30–37 days. In 2016, three irrigations with the rate of 1220-1260 m3 ha-1 were done. Maximum water consumption occurs from the end of July to the beginning of August. Consumption of spring reserves for soil moisture was 8%-10% higher at late harvesting than at early harvesting. During the crop season with high rainfall distributed uniformly over the vegetation period, spring soil moisture reserves consumption increased and their share in total water consumption increased 12% up to 20%, whereas, during dry seasons it decreased 6% up to 14%. The study noted that for producing the sugar beet yields ranging from 22.6 to 65.2 t ha-1, the NPK should be applied at the rate of nitrogen (32 – 215 kg ha-1), phosphorus (12–68 kg ha-1), and potassium (50–380 kg ha-1), It was also found necessary to apply fertilizers differentially depending on the level of applied technology for the planned beet yield.

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Keywords: Crop productivity, production process, fertilizers, photosynthesis, automated agricultural technologies, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.13

Response of heat-stress tolerant and susceptible wheat lines in diverse planting environments by using parametric stability models

M. ZULKIFFAL, J. AHMED, M. RIAZ, Y. RAMZAN, A. AHSAN, A. KANWAL, I. GHAFOOR, M. NADEEM, and M. ABDULLAH

SUMMARY

In Pakistan, wheat planting is delayed because of dawn sowing, which reduces yield due to terminal heat stress. This effect can be alleviated by changing sowing times. Therefore, parametric stability analysis was carried out with eight different sowing dates (environments), namely, early, normal, late, and very late, with 10-day intervals in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 at the Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Significant heat stress responses were observed at the latter two sowing dates. The genetic and phenotypic relationship among the traits revealed that the normalized vegetation index (NI) had a positive correlation with grain yield (kg ha−1) (Yi) and 1000-grain weight (g) (GrWt). However, canopy temperature (CaTe) had a negative correlation with Yi, GrWt, and NI. For Yi and GrWt, the linear environmental response (α) and deviation from linear response (λ) were observed as transformed forms of regression coefficient (bi) and deviation from regression (S2d). Planting dates, i.e., E1, E6, and E7, had slight effects on Yi, and E6, E7, E2, and E8 had slight effects on GrWt. Meanwhile, E3, E4, E5, E1, E3, and E4 exerted a strong effect on the genotype by environment interactions for Yi and GrWt. For Yi, lines G23, G20, and G21 were adapted to E8; G9 and G19 were adapted to E1; and G15, G17, and G22 were adapted to E5. For GrWt, G13, G20, G3, G11, G21, and G15 were adapted to E8 and E4; G10, G7, G8, and G5 were adapted to E5; G4, G22, and G17 were adapted to E6 and E4; and G24 and G2 were adapted to E2 and E3. The candidate wheat lines with enhanced GrWt and Yi were found in E5 and E6 (late sowing) and E7 and E8 (very late) and presented tolerance to terminal heat stress.

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Keywords: Probing, heat stress, candidate lines, sowing date, parametric stability models, bread wheat

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.12