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Rubus idaeus L. fruit nutrients are affected by different growing technologies

Evdokimenko SN, Motyleva SM, Medvedev SM, Kulikov IM

SUMMARY

The biochemical compounds of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits cultivated with conventional growing technology and on a nutrient substrate were studied during 20192020 at the Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, Moscow, Russia. The antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and ash constituents of the fruits and the metabolites of the alcoholic extract of the raspberries were determined. The effect of growing technologies, i.e., conventional vs. nutrient substrate, on the accumulation of macro- and microelements in raspberry fruits was established. In red raspberries grown on nutrient substrate, the antioxidant activity decreased by 25 times (aqueous extract) and 1.5 times (alcoholic extract). The K and Na contents and Se contents of red raspberries grown on nutrient substrate were 1.5 and 3 times higher than those of raspberries of grown with conventional technology. Raspberries grown with conventional technology contained 2 times more Ca, Ni, and Mn and 7.4 times more Fe than raspberries grown on nutrient substrate. The total amount of elements in raspberries grown through soilless cultivation was 5.5% higher than that in berries grown conventionally. A total of 48 compounds were identified in the alcoholic extracts, and only 29 substances were found in berries grown on a nutrient substrate. Sugar and citric acid constituted the largest share of red raspberry components. Fructose and turanose disaccharide synthesis in raspberries grown on nutrient substrate was 20% higher than that in conventionally grown raspberries. A total of 48 organic compounds with different biological activities were identified. They included five substances with antimicrobial activity, three phenolic substances, eight organic acids, four sugar acids, nine amino acids, and 19 sugars and their derivatives. At the same time, 42 compounds were found in raspberries grown with traditional technology, and 21 compounds were identified in raspberry fruits grown on nutrient substrate. Three fatty acids, namely, ɑ-linoleic acid (polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid), palmitic acid, and stearic acid (saturated fatty acid), along with cinnamic acid, shikimic acid, and chrysin were found in berries grown conventionally.

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Keywords: Rubus idaeus L., conventional growing, nutrient substrate, nutrients, antioxidant activity, ash constituents of fruits, metabolites, bioactive compounds

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.8

Improvement of the submergence stress tolerance of local South Sumatran rice through the introgression of the Sub1 gene by using marker-assisted selection

Adriansyah F, Hasmeda M, Suwignyo RA, Halimi ES, Sarimana U

SUMMARY

Submergence stress due to unpredictable soil flooding is one of the mainconstraints encountered in rainfed growing areas, especially in Southern Sumatran riparian swamps. The development of submergence-stress-tolerant cultivars through the introgression of Sub1 via marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an ideal solution. This study was carried out during 2020 at Sriwijaya University, Palembang, Indonesia, with the aim to select Sub1-introgressed lines in BC3F1 generations on the basis of MABC and to screen out the SSR markers that were unlinked to the target gene for application in subsequent background selection studies. Results revealed that almost all the backcrossed progenies segregated from the rice parental cultivars ‘FR13A’ and ‘Pegagan’. The backcrossed lines showed significantly improved submergence stress tolerance and recovery rates compared with their parents. Sub1 introgression into the BC3F1 generation was confirmed by the tightly linked Sub1 marker SUB1C173, and marker RM23915 was used for recombinant selection. These markers followed the expected marker segregation ratio in accordance with the Mendelian single gene model. In the parental polymorphism survey, 84 out of 237 SSR markers that were unlinked to the target loci were found to be available for background study. Twenty-seven backcrossed lines were selected on the basis of foreground selection. Seven plants were selected on the basis of the recombinant marker RM23915. Five backcrossed lines were further selected on the basis of submergence stress tolerance and agronomic performance.

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Keywords: Backcrossing, SSR markers, Sub1 gene, submergence tolerance, Oryza sativa L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.3

Morphophysiological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes prevailing in the core area of Punjab, Pakistan

Haq IU, Razzaq H, Haq MA, Saeed A, Hameed M, Asif M

SUMMARY

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops and the fourth most important edible crop after the three major cereal crops. It is considered as an approximately complete diet food because of its nutritional value. Its center of origin is Peru, South America. In Punjab, Pakistan, the districts of Sahiwal and Okara serve as the core areas of potato cultivation. Thirty-three potato genotypes were collected from the core areas of Punjab for characterization. The genetic diversity of potato germplasm was assessed on the basis of morphophysiological traits. This experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design and three replications. The data on 14 morphological and physiological traits were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated the presence of highly significant variation for each physiological and morphological trait. Correlation analysis showed that plant yield was highly correlated with the number of tubers per plant (0.484), tuber weight (0.648), and chlorophyll contents (0.365). By contrast, tuber dry matter exhibited a significant highly negative association with tuber moisture content (−0.753). Algorithmic hierarchical cluster analysis allocated the genotypes into four distinct clusters. Cluster 2, which was the largest cluster, comprised 18 genotypes. By contrast, cluster 4 was the smallest cluster and contained only two genotypes. The results of diversity analysis obtained through hierarchical clustering were further validated through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA provided five significant principal components that contributed 72.39% of the total variation. The principal components of the biplot explained 41.95% of the total variation, with tuber moisture content and tuber dry matter as distinct traits. Cultivars ‘SH5’, ‘SH 7-18’, ‘Simply Red,’ and ‘Ruby’ were the vertex genotypes in the biplot. Results indicated the prevalence of significant variation in the tested germplasm. Furthermore, the assessment of diversity at the molecular level is recommended for the further validation of genetic diversity.

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Keywords: Genetic diversity, Punjab, morphophysiological traits, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, Solanum tuberosum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.2

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) response to foliar application of arginine and nano-iron

Nihad T.A. AL-JANABI, and Mushtaq T.H. AL-ZURFI

SUMMARY

The latest study focused on snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) plants during the fall season of 2021–2022 in a greenhouse at the Agricultural Division, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq. The study aimed to determine the response of snapdragon plants to foliar application of arginine (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg L-1) and nano-iron (0, 30, 60, and 90 mg L-1). The experiment comprised a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement and three replications. The arginine (60 mg L-1) foliar spray led to a significant enhancement in the flower and physiological traits, i.e., flower carrier length (19.62 cm), age of the flowering inflorescence (25.01 days), leaf content of carbohydrates (12.75 mg g.-1) and iron (48.93 mg kg-1), and flower content for anthocyanin dye (21.40 mg 100 g-1) compared with the lowest values of the control treatment viz., 13.88 cm, 16.70 days, 11.25 mg g-1, 15.22 mg kg-1, and 9.82 mg 100 g-1, respectively. The nano-iron (90 mg L-1) also significantly improved the flower and physiological traits, i.e., the flower carrier length (18.06 cm), age of the flowering inflorescence (22.75 days), leaf content for carbohydrates (12.16 mg g-1); iron (38.08 mg kg-1), and flower content for anthocyanin dye (16.72 mg 100 g-1) compared with the control, i.e., 15.79 cm, 20.02 days, 11.71 mg g-1, 29.61 mg kg-1, and 13.05 mg 100 g-1, respectively. The interaction of arginine (60 mg L-1) and nano-iron (90 mg L-1) provided a positive effect of their individual application for flower and physiological traits (22.55 cm, 27.93 days, 12.93 mg g-1, 50.04 mg kg-1 ,and 23.06 mg100 g-1) compared with the control (12.84 cm, 15.43 days, 10.84 mg g-1, 13.0 mg kg-1 ,and5.13 mg 100 g-1), respectively.

Keywords: Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), arginine, nano-iron

Key findings: The single and dual interaction foliar application of arginine (60 mg L-1) and nano-iron (90 mg L-1) significantly improved the flower and physiological traits of snapdragon (A. majus L.) plants, followed by the individual application of arginine (60 mg L-1) and nano-iron (90 mg L-1).

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Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.23

Liquefied water and antioxidants influence on vegetative growth and physiological traits of sweet orange

A.J. MOHAMMED and Ali.S.A. AL-JANABI

Citrus production faces many problems; a major one consists of irrigating citrus seedlings grown at Agricultural Research Stations and various nurseries with saline well water, which determines the growth, reproduction, and spread of citrus in Iraq. The said problem needs addressing to reduce its effects on the growth and reproduction of citrus fruits. Therefore, the latest research aimed to determine the effects of regular liquefied water and saline well water, in addition to a foliar spray of aspartic and ascorbic acids, on the growth and physiological properties of the grafted orange seedlings. The local citrus seedlings of the same age and size were selected and used as the original and grafted with local orange buds. They were shifted and tested for the above three factors at the Horticulture and Forestry Division, Najaf Agriculture Directorate, Iraq. The findings showed that irrigation with regular liquefied water had improved the growth traits, i.e., plant height, leaves plant-1, leaf area plant-1, and dry biomass weight of sweet orange seedlings, compared with saline well water. Results further revealed that foliar application of aspartic acid (100 mg L-1) positively affected the leaves plant-1 and dry biomass weight compared with the control. The ascorbic acid (4000 mg L-1) application gave highly superior and well-responsive reactions for most of the traits, i.e., leaves plant-1 (69.3 leaves plant-1), leaf area plant-1 (3888 cm2), dry biomass weight (0.3629 g), and total chlorophyll content (7.03 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight) in orange seedlings.

Keywords: Sweet orange transplants, aspartic, ascorbic acids, water quality

Key findings: Salinity impacts agriculture and crop plants must be induced for salt tolerance and sustained economic output. Antioxidants, such as, aspartic acid and ascorbic acid have auxinic action and also have a synergistic effect on plant growth and salinity tolerance.

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Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.22

Identification of drought-tolerant kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes at the early seedling stage.

T. HUSSAIN, Z. AKRAM, G. SHABBIR, A. MANAF, G. RABBANI, J. IQBAL, U. JAVED, R. AHMAD and J. AKHTAR

SUMMARY

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is negatively affected by drought stress at all the growth stages, including germination and seedling emergence. The recent study aimed to investigate the drought-tolerant Kabuli chickpea genotypes at the seedling stage under osmotic stress conditions. An in vitro screening technique evaluated the 120 different genotypes of Kabuli chickpea for drought tolerance by using different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (8000) solution, viz., T0: Control, T1: -0.19 MPa, and T2: -0.47 MPa, arranged in a completely randomized design. Data were recorded on germination percentage, root length, shoot length, seedling length, root/shoot ratio, dry matter, seedling vigor index, and proline content. The results of a pooled analysis of variance revealed significant variability among genotypes, different polyethylene glycol treatments, as well as, between genotypes and treatments. The increase of polyethylene glycol levels negatively affected most of the parameters under study, except for proline content, which increased with an increase in polyethylene glycol concentration. The study results indicated that the advanced lines, 15KCC-106, 13KCC-114, 6KCC-103, GP-37, FS-10, and 12KCC-106, performed better under different osmotic stress conditions and gained selection as drought-tolerant advanced lines at early seedling stage. These advanced lines suitably combine with their desirable traits to cope with the drought condition and can serve as a baseline for the improvement of Kabuli chickpea breeding material for drought tolerance.

Keywords: Kabuli chickpea,drought tolerance, polyethylene glycol, proline

Key Findings: The breeding lines, 15KCC-106, 13KCC-114, 6KCC-103, GP-37, FS-10, and 12KCC-106 were identified as drought tolerant at the seedling stage and will be used in future breeding programs for the development of drought-tolerant Kabuli chickpea genotypes.

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Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.19

Drought effects on physiological parameters of durum and bread wheat

T.H. TAMRAZOV

SUMMARY

The present research discusses the dynamics of changes in the surface of assimilation organs of different durum and bread wheat genotypes differing in the maturation period due to drought conditions. Under drought conditions, the soil water potential decreases, and in the later stages of the plants, the turgor pressure decreases, the stomata close, and a sharp decrease in photosynthetic activities. The situation creates stress in the crop plant, and various biochemical, physiological, and molecular reactions arise to overcome and protect itself from stress, allowing the plant to develop resistant mechanisms to adapt to the external environment. The existent research aimed to determine drought effects on assimilating surface areas and productivity traits of durum and bread wheat genotypes differing in their maturation periods grown under various climatic and soil conditions, with the comparison of the physiological indices. The experiments proceeded on wheat genotypes with contrasting maturation periods (early, medium, and late) during 2021–2022 at the Research Institute of Crop Husbandry, Absheron, Azerbaijan. The assimilating surface area of various organs underwent comparative studies in two durum (Garagylchyg-2 and Alinja-84) and two bread wheat (Nurlu-99 and Gobustan) cultivars under normal water supply and drought conditions. Post anthesis water stress caused a 34% and 27% reduction in grain yield and 1000-grain weight, respectively, while no significant effect on the grains per spike and spikes per m2. The averages of grain yield and 1000-grain weight of different wheat cultivars in the controlled condition showed 696±36g/m2 and 43.1±0.8 g/m2, respectively, while under water-stress conditions, these values significantly decreased to 452±57 g/m2 and 31.6±1.4 g. The significant reduction in grain yield due to post-anthesis water stress might be due to a reduction in photo-assimilates production.

Keywords: wheat genotypes, the drought factor, duration of ripening, assimilation area

Key findings: Resistant cultivars’ determination resulted from the effect of drought on productivity indicators against the background of changes in the main physiological characteristics of durum and bread wheat genotypes that differ in terms of maturity.

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Date of publication: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.18

Biological potential of winter cereals in the Northern Trans-Urals, Russia

N.A. BOME, S. SALEKH1, K.P. KOROLEV, N.N. KOLOKOLOVA, L.I. WEISFELD,
and N.V. TETYANNIKOV

Winter cereals (wheat, triticale, and rye) are the most cultivated crops in Russia, and their yield and quality results from the combination of environment and farm management. Generally, winter cereals have a much higher yield than spring cereals due to the ability to use winter moisture for growth. The latest study aimed to conduct a comparative assessment of the winter wheat, triticale, and rye according to the variability of quantitative traits under the environmental conditions of Northern Trans-Urals, Russia, during 2019–2020 and 2020–2021. Results revealed that the genotypes of winter triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) showed improved harvests compared with winter wheat even under unfavorable environmental conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals, Russia. The chlorophyll content in the plant leaves was used as a tool for screening the genotypes of different winter cereals. Plant screening with the SPAD 502 Plus optical chlorophyll counter made it possible to determine the responses of genotypes to the heat and water stress conditions. For chlorophyll content in the flag leaf cells, intra- and inter-specific differences were observed. The fields of winter crops harvested in summer (late July to early August) can serve for growing multifunctional crops like ground cover, fodder, and green manure crops.

Keywords: Winter wheat, triticale, rye, diverse environments, chlorophyll, SPAD 502 device, cultivars testing

Key findings: Winter cereals (wheat, triticale, and rye) showed a high potential for winter hardiness, resistance to lack of moisture, and against high air temperatures, giving high grain yield. Thus, the study suggests them as promising under the environmental conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals, Russia. Further, in evaluating plant morphological traits, the chlorophyll content in leaves at using a portable meter SPAD 502 provides a useful criterion for screening the genotypes. The fields of winter crops harvested in summer can serve for growing multipurpose crops.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.10

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) Genotypes assessment for leaf yield stability through genotype by environment interactions, AMMI, and GGE biplot analyses

S. AMIEN, H. MAULANA, D. RUSWANDI, and S. NURJANAH

SUMMARY

Multilocation testing plays a vital role in the release of new high-yielding cultivars of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) in Indonesia. In stevia, the leaf yield potential demonstrates an important characteristic for superior genotype selection. The study sought to identify the effects of genotype by environment interactions (GEI) on stevia yield and select the genotypes with stable yield resulting from radiation and hybridization through AMMI and GGE biplot analyses under three growing environments. The experiments took place in three locations, namely, Bandung, Sumedang, and Garut, West Java, Indonesia, consisting of a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications. The combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) attained the genotype by environment interactions measurements. Calculating yield stability used the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI), AMMI stability value (ASV), genotype stability index (GSI), and genotype plus genotype by environments (GGE) biplot measurements. The results revealed significant effects of environments (92.38%), followed by GEI (5.20%), and genotype effects (2.43%) of the total variation on stevia yield. The stevia genotypes viz., G11, G27, G2, and G5 gave a higher and more stable yield based on the AMMI-1 biplot. Based on the GGE biplot and the genotypes’ sustainable performances, the stevia genotypes, i.e., G27, G2, G11, G20, and G26, gained selection as stable. The three selected stevia genotypes displayed the highest yields and proved stable in three environments viz., G2 (Tamangwangu EMS mutant number A), G11 (Bogor mutant with gamma ray radiation 5 number C), and G27 (a hybrid from Garut × Bogor-3). These promising genotypes exhibit the potential for further development into new superior stevia genotypes.

Keywords: Adaptability, GEI, multilocations, productivity, West Java-Indonesia

Key findings: Increased stevia leaf yields proved highly influenced by genotypes, environments, and their interactions, where environmental effects contributed 92.38% of the total variation. The use of various stability measures, including AMMI and GGE biplot, helped select three superior stevia genotypes as being stable and high yielding under various environments.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.8

Stay green genes fragment homology analysis of Indonesian sorghum

MUNARTI, D. WIRNAS, TRIKOESOEMANINGTYAS, SOBIR, M. SYUKUR, and D. SOPANDIE

SUMMARY

Stay-green (SGR) is an essential trait in sorghum associated with grain yield under drought and high-temperature stress conditions. The study sought to analyze the homology of the stay-green gene fragment in Indonesian sorghum cultivars, comparing it with the SGR gene sequences in the GenBank database. Two primer pairs, designated as SGR_1 and SGR_2, got designed from the SGR gene of Sorghum bicolor and used to amplify seven sorghum genotypes. The DNA fragments of 300 bp and 1000 bp produced by SGR_1 and SGR_2, respectively, underwent sequencing. Amino acid analysis of the seven sorghum genotypes resulted in high homology with senescence-inducible chloroplast SGR-protein 1 from Zea mays and SGR-chloroplastic of Setaria italica. An observation on a conservative region with the SGR domain noticed SGR genes, derived from sorghum genotypes, clustered separately with those from other SGR genes available in the GenBank database. The first group consisted of a sorghum genotype (Samurai 2), the second group consisted of Super 2, Numbu, and Kawali, while the third group consisted of PI-150-20-A, Pahat, and B69 with coefficient similarity of 10%, 14%, and 30%, respectively. Although Indonesian sorghum has a different group in GenBank, it has similar nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with identity values of 95%-100% and 51%-100%, respectively. The amino acid diversity of the DNA fragments of the SGR gene is highly potential to develop molecular markers, especially the stay green character. The finding will support a sorghum breeding efficiently and precisely, especially for yield improvement under drought-stress conditions.

Keywords: Drought stress, phylogenetic analysis, sequence identity, SGR-like (SGRL)

Key findings: The SGR gene sequence contains a conservative region and has high homology with the senescence-inducible chloroplast stay-green protein 1 and stay-green chloroplast proteins. These results prove that the SGR gene family in Indonesian sorghum cultivars is SGR-like (SGRL).

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.6