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Morphophysiological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes prevailing in the core area of Punjab, Pakistan

Haq IU, Razzaq H, Haq MA, Saeed A, Hameed M, Asif M

SUMMARY

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops and the fourth most important edible crop after the three major cereal crops. It is considered as an approximately complete diet food because of its nutritional value. Its center of origin is Peru, South America. In Punjab, Pakistan, the districts of Sahiwal and Okara serve as the core areas of potato cultivation. Thirty-three potato genotypes were collected from the core areas of Punjab for characterization. The genetic diversity of potato germplasm was assessed on the basis of morphophysiological traits. This experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design and three replications. The data on 14 morphological and physiological traits were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated the presence of highly significant variation for each physiological and morphological trait. Correlation analysis showed that plant yield was highly correlated with the number of tubers per plant (0.484), tuber weight (0.648), and chlorophyll contents (0.365). By contrast, tuber dry matter exhibited a significant highly negative association with tuber moisture content (−0.753). Algorithmic hierarchical cluster analysis allocated the genotypes into four distinct clusters. Cluster 2, which was the largest cluster, comprised 18 genotypes. By contrast, cluster 4 was the smallest cluster and contained only two genotypes. The results of diversity analysis obtained through hierarchical clustering were further validated through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA provided five significant principal components that contributed 72.39% of the total variation. The principal components of the biplot explained 41.95% of the total variation, with tuber moisture content and tuber dry matter as distinct traits. Cultivars ‘SH5’, ‘SH 7-18’, ‘Simply Red,’ and ‘Ruby’ were the vertex genotypes in the biplot. Results indicated the prevalence of significant variation in the tested germplasm. Furthermore, the assessment of diversity at the molecular level is recommended for the further validation of genetic diversity.

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Keywords: Genetic diversity, Punjab, morphophysiological traits, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, Solanum tuberosum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.2

TAXONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES USING matK AND rbcL DNA BARCODES

V.T. HO, T.Q. DINH, and T.H. NGUYEN

SUMMARY 

Curculigo orchioides is most commonly used as an imperative medicinal plant in Vietnam. The plant roots are mainly used to treat sexual dysfunction, back pain, arthritis, nephritis, jaundice, and infertility. Given the high market demand in the herbal market, C. orchioides traders commonly adulterate with other similar plants for illegitimate benefits. Maturase K (matK) and ribulose 1,5biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) DNA barcode loci are presently used to identify the blends and counterfeit the medicinal herbs, as well as, identify the propagating conservation material. Nevertheless, the identification accuracy is highly dependent on NCBI Genbank or Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). In the recent study, the efficiency of DNA barcode loci, matK and rbcL for the classification of C. orchioides populations, was investigated during 2020–2021. After examining 11 accessions of C. orchioides collected from different locations in Vietnam, the obtained results revealed that using NCBI database is more effective for classifying C. orchioides. In addition, the matK locus also showed higher identification power than rbcL. The obtained findings could be helpful in the trading management, conservation, and development of C. orchioides in Vietnam.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.16

Genetic analysis for yield attributes in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccharata) under diverse environments

T. NADEEM, I.H. KHALIL, IKRAMULLAH, and S.A. JADOON

SUMMARY

The genotype and environment interaction (GEI) has always been a challenge as these are the main concerns of breeders during the selection of suitable parents for breeding programs. Very little information is available regarding the implication and importance of significant GE interaction, its source, and nature in plant breeding programs and on the net yield and resultant varieties. The study aimed to investigate the gene action and assess the performance of half-diallel populations using eight advanced sweet corn inbred lines for yield-related traits across two environmental conditions, i.e., Nowshera plain and Swat hilly areas, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Statistical analyses revealed significant variations among sweet corn genotypes for the studied traits from both locations. Hayman’s graphical analysis deduced that majority of traits like grains cob-1, 100-kernel weight, stover yield, and sweet corn grain yield showed over-dominance sort of inheritance at both Nowshera and Swat locations. The additive components were not more in magnitude than the dominance components at both the locations, however, these were lower than their counterparts’ (H1 and H2) components signifying the major function of a dominant gene action. The dominance effect was unidirectional for all the traits in the sub-tropical plain area, as well as, the temperate hilly area. Asymmetrical gene allocation was found due to their values being lower than 0.25 at both test locations. Broad-sense heritability was higher for most of the traits at both locations except for grains cob-1 and stover yield at Nowshera. It can be incidental that due to the dominant gene action and the least amount of narrow-sense heritability for most of the sweet corn yield-related traits, high yielding hybrids could be utilized for heterotic breeding.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Sweet corn, additive-dominance model, genetic analysis, Hayman’s half-diallel approach, heritability, gene action 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.3

Genetic diversity of field mustard (Brassica rapa L.) and their saturated and unsaturated fatty acids association

J. RAHMAN, F. SULTANA, K. FATIMA, M.M. HASAN, N. GAIN, M.S. HOSSAIN, A.K. CHOWDHURY, and A. RAHMAN

The oilseed crop improvement for Brassica rapa L. (field mustard) is considered to be important in respect of yield production coupled with unsaturated fatty acids of the existing cultivars. Hence, the genetic diversity, and nutritional components of 14 B. rapa cultivars were evaluated based on their yield attributes and fatty acid profiles at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. These 14 B. rapa cultivars differed significantly and were grouped into five diversified clusters. The highest intra-cluster distance was found in cluster II (2.43), while the highest intercluster distance was found between clusters II and V (20.41). In the fatty acid profile, the maximum threshold acceptable level (<7%) of saturated fatty acids for human consumption was found in Sonali Sarisha and BARI Sarisha-14. The total monounsaturated fatty acids viz., oleic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid ranged from 62.74% in BARI Sarisha-15 to 69.51% in Sonali Sarisha. The highest oleic acid and eicosenoic acid were obtained from the local variety, Maghi (21.06%) and Improved Tori (9.08%). The highest essential linoleic and linolenic acids were found in BARI Sarisha-15 (17.10%) and Improved Tori (8.16%), respectively. However, the local cultivar Maghi, containing the highest oleic acid (21.06%) has the lowest erucic acid (35.53%). On the other hand, BARI Sarisha-14 contained the lowest oleic (17.22%) and the highest erucic (44.02%) acids. The negative and strong correlation also reinforced the reverse relationship between oleic and erucic acids. Similarly, both linoleic (-0.497) and linolenic (-0.443) acids also showed a negative correlation with erucic acid. As a whole, BARI Sarisha14, BARI Sarisha-15, Maghi, Sonali Sarisha, and Improved Tori could be selected as potential parents for a hybridization program to breed potential recombinant lines with higher oil content and healthier unsaturated oleic and linoleic fatty acids.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Brassica rapa L., principal component analysis, fatty acids, erucic acid, correlation of fatty acids, oil stability index

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.4

Testcross performance for anthocyanin and antioxidant activity in the ear components of purple waxy corn lines

Kalapakdee W, Dermail A, Lertrat K, Sanitchon J, S Chankaewi, Lomthaisong K, Surihari B

Published: June 2020

The anthocyanin and phenolic yields and antioxidant activity of seven waxy corn genotypes, their F1 progenies, and hybrid checks grown during two growing seasons in 2018–2019 were assessed. The mode of gene action on the traits of interest was investigated, and promising lines with high anthocyanin in whole-ear components were identified. An overwhelming dominance genetic effect, high reciprocal cross effects, and low heritability for targeted traits in corn husks and cobs were revealed. Promising lines, namely NSX/DKA/PF for corn husk anthocyanin content, PF/AB and S6248/TB/KND//PF for corn cob anthocyanin content, and PF/AB and TB/KND//PF for corn kernel anthocyanin content, were identified.

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Kalapakdee W, Dermail A, Lertrat K, Sanitchon J, S Chankaewi, Lomthaisong K, Surihari B (2020). Testcross performance for anthocyanin and antioxidant activity in the ear components of purple waxy corn lines. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):158–176.

Diversity and utilization of bamboo (Bambusoideae) in five islands around Riau Province, Indonesia

Fitmawati, Saputri NA, Hartanto S, Resida E, Kholifah SN, Kapli H, Sofiyanti N, Wahibah NN, Khairijon

Published: June 2020

The diversity and functions of bamboo in peatlands were determined. Five genera, 17 species, and three varieties were identified and delineated into two groups. The most closely related species were Bambusa vulgaris Schard. Ex Wendl. var. striata and B. vulgaris Schard. Ex Wendl. var. vulgaris, whereas the most distantly related species were Gigantochloa kuring Widjaja and Gigantochloa atter (Kurz). Bamboo had 21 types of uses and is generally used as a soil-retaining plant and a clean-water filter. B. vulgaris Schard. Ex Wendl. var. vulgaris had multiple purposes and showed adaptability to all types of habitats. This species has the potential to be developed in peatland areas.

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Fitmawati, Saputri NA, Hartanto S, Resida E, Kholifah SN, Kapli H, Sofiyanti N, Wahibah NN, Khairijon (2020). Diversity and utilization of bamboo (Bambusoideae) in five islands around Riau Province, Indonesia. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):177–190

Starch accumulation of cassava genotypes grown in paddy fields during off-season

Nimlamai T, Banterng P, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N

Published: June 2020

Starch production by four different cassava genotypes grown in four different upper paddy fields during the off-season of rice was studied. Early storage root formation, rapid starch production rate, and high starch yield accumulation were identified as relevant traits top-yielding cassava genotypes in off-season rice paddy systems. CMR38-125-77 was identified as a satisfactory cassava genetic resource.

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Nimlamai T, Banterng P, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N (2020). Starch accumulation of cassava genotypes grown in paddy fields during off-season. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):109–126.

Identification of the secondary metabolite capsiate in Capsicum germplasm accessions.

Tarinta T, Chanthai S, Lertrat K, Nawata E, Techawongstien S

Nineteen pepper accessions were evaluated for high capsiate levels without capsaicin. The presence of capsiate and capsaicin were evaluated by using two DNA markers. The KKU-P31146 accession showed the highest capsiate levels without capsaicin and could be used as a new source for breeding high-CAT accessions.

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Tarinta T, Chanthai S, Lertrat K, Nawata E, Techawongstien S (2020). Identification of the secondary metabolite capsiate in Capsicum germplasm accessions. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):144–157.

Agronomic characters and seed protein content of soybean (Glycine max [l.] Merr.) Lines across environments

Kuswantoro H, Ginting E, Yuniarti N, Artari R, Rahajeng W, Purwatoro, Nugrahaeni N

Published: June 2020

The agronomic performance and seed protein contents of 49 soybean lines were investigated in two environments. Location, genotype, and genotype × environment interactions influenced the investigated characteristics. The agronomic characteristics and protein content of the 49 soybean lines varied between locations, and protein and methionine content varied across genotypes.

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Kuswantoro H, Ginting E, Yuniarti N, Artari R, Rahajeng W, Purwatoro, Nugrahaeni N (2020). Agronomic characters and seed protein content of soybean (Glycine max [l.] Merr.) Lines across environments. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):91–108.

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Pest species composition of fragrant trees in the parks and gardens of Yerevan City, Armenia

A.H. BABAYAN

SUMMARY

Several fragrant tree species, i.e., Aesculus hippocastanum, Magnolia brooklynensis “Yellow Bird”, Catalpa bignonioides, and Prunus serrulata were previously registered in the database. A. hippocastanum, Ailanthus altíssima, C. bignonioides, and Robinia pseudoacacia were found to be the most common and important species in the parks and gardens of Yerevan, Armenia. These species were found in almost all of the studied gardens. The present study aimed to investigate the species composition of the pests of fragrant trees in different landscaped areas of Yerevan, Armenia, during 2020–2021. This study found 48 species of pests of fragrant trees in various parks and gardens. The species belonged to three taxonomic classes, 11 orders, and 33 families. These pest species significantly suppressed the growth and development of fragrant trees, and in some cases, even caused the trees to dry out. In the early spring, the pest species Parthenolecanium corni Bouche., Euproctis chrysorrhoea, Aphis laburni Kalt., Myzus cerasi, Panonychus ulmi, Tetranychus urticae, and Schizotetranychus pruni were observed on fragrant plants. Notably, this study revealed six species of fragrant tree pests, of which four, i.e., Dasineura gleditchiae, Halyomorpha halys, Trioza neglecta, and Calophya rhois, were found for the first time in the fauna of Armenia, and two, i.e., Obolodiplosis robiniae and Euura tibialis, were found previously in Tavush Region, Dilijan, Armenia.

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Keywords: Fragrant trees, pests species composition, harmful insects, mites and nematodes, Yerevan, Armenia

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.1.19