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Genetic diversity of Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.) Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) in Java Island, Indonesia

E. SETIAWAN, M. ARDIYANI, M. MIFTAHUDIN, A.D. POULSEN, and T. CHIKMAWATI

SUMMARY

Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.f.) Roscoe is a rare plant in Java, Indonesia, that produces essential oils. Its sustained decline causes great concern for future uses. Therefore, the study of its diversity in its natural habitat to predict future survival needs serious focus. The present study aims to determine the genetic diversity of A. malaccensis in Java based on ISSR markers. The sampling of a total of 11 populationsyielded 33 accessions, whichunderwent amplifying using 12 ISSR primers. Using the molecular data analyzed their relationships, population structure, and genetic diversity. The UPGMA cluster, structure, and principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the accessions divide in three groups, a result that correlates with their geography in Java. Group I consisted of var. malaccensis populations, while groups II and III comprised the var. nobilis populations, which proved truer among populations of var. nobilis. The genetic diversity category of A. malaccensis showed moderate based on Nei’s genetic diversity (h = 0.2892) and Shannon’s information index (I = 0.4438). The coefficient of genetic differentiation (GST) and molecular variance among the populations displayed higher within the individual population, which revealed a significant genetic variance among the 11 populations of A. malaccensis. The latest results confirm that ISSR markers can help distinguish the genotypes of A. malaccensis.

Keywords: Alpinia, gingers, genetic variation, population structure, molecular marker

Key findings: The results indicate that a genetic variation of A. malaccensis can further serve the species’ conservation, characterization, and usefulness for future breeding purposes. In addition, this data will form the backbone of a taxonomic database.

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Date published: October 2022

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.4.4

Seed priming effects on seed quality and antioxidant system in the seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor L

E.M. GINS

SUMMARY

Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. ‘Valentina’ leaves are a promising source of dietary food supplements (DFS) and are used to prepare tea drinks that improve human health in Russia. Amaranth is a small-seeded crop, and the seed mass differs significantly, which leads to unfriendly shoots and a decrease in the potential productivity of the plant biomass. Pre-sowing treatment with growth stimulants can improve its seed quality. The study aimed to improve the seed quality, the morpho-physiological parameters, and the antioxidant properties of amaranth seedlings grown from seeds treated with plant growth stimulants at the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, Federal Scientific Vegetable Center (FSBSI FSVC), Moscow, Russia. For seed treatments, water solutions of salicylic acid (SA – 138 mg/L), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 – 5 mM), succinic acid (ScA – 500 mg/L), calcium chloride (CaCl2 – 3000 mg/L), and gibberellic acid (GA3 – 300 mg/L) were used. Researchers germinated the seeds first in petri dishes in natural light at a daytime temperature of 23±2°C for seven days. Determining amaranthine, chlorophyll, and carotenoid content used generally accepted methods. Pre-sowing treatment of large and small fractions of amaranth seeds with GA3, ScA, and CaCl2 improved the seed quality, whereas seed treatment of SA and H2O2 reduced the seed quality. Recording of antioxidants (amaranthine and carotenoids) and total chlorophyll content accumulation in seedlings grown from the treated seeds followed. The levels of amaranthine and photosynthetic pigments decreased in the seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. Valentina seeds with ScA, CaCl2, and GA3 treatments, while the seedling’s biomass exceeded that of control, which suggests that these chemicals act as growth regulators. The negative effect of SA on the viability of large (LF) and small (SF) amaranth seeds showed significant reductions in the morphometric indicators. It may be due to oxidative stress, enhancing amaranthine content in the cotyledonary leaves of seedlings.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. Valentina, seeds, seedlings, growth regulators salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, succinic acid, calcium chloride, gibberellic acid, amaranthine, carotenoids, photosynthetic pigments

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.16

ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND NATURAL ZEOLITE EFFECTS ON MORPHOMETRIC TRAITS OF BRASSICA NAPUS L. POLLEN GRAINS

T. ZUBKOVA, S. MOTYLEVA, D. VINOGRADOV, V. GULIDOVA, and O. DUBROVINA

SUMMARY

Morphological characteristics of Brassica napus pollen (polar axis, equatorial diameter, shape index, pattern of perforation of exines, and perimeter of perforation zones) were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy JEOL JSM-6390. The B. napus seeds were grown under various agroecological conditions, i.e., mineral fertilizer (NPK 60:60:60 t hasup>-1) separately and together with zeolite, chicken droppings (10 t ha-1) separately and together with zeolite (5 t hasup>-1), and control (without fertilizers) from 2018 to 2020 at the Bunin Yelets State University, Yelets, Russia. It was found that pollen grains of B. napus had an oblong-ellipsoid shape. In the polar view, the pollen grains were circular with straight sides, though in the equatorial view, elliptical. For the polar axis of the pollen grains in fertilizer application treatments, the minimum values ranged from 24.59 to 27.76 µm, whereas the maximum readings were 40.13 to 42.12 µm compared with control (21.56 µm, 41.52 µm). The coefficient of variation for fertilizer applications ranged from 8.86% to 14.10% compared with control (14.85%) for the polar axis. For the equatorial axis of the pollen grains, the minimum values varied from 11.61 to 15.63 µm, whereas the range for the maximum values was 19.74 to 23.96 µm compared with the control (13.63 µm, 21.88 µm). For the equatorial axis among the fertilizer applications, the coefficient of variation varied from 8.47% to 12.01% compared with the control (18.35%). For the perimeter of the exine perforation of the pollen grains, the minimum values ranged from 1.68 to 1.95 µm, whereas the maximum values varied from 4.34 to 7.12 µm compared with the control (1.34 µm, 5.68 µm). The coefficient of variation varied from 24.48% to 33.19% compared with the control (34.78%) for the perimeter of exine perforation. The shape index of the pollen grains of the B. napus varied from 1.96 to 2.07 µm (correct unit of measure?) compared with the control (2.03 µm). Overall, with the use of organic fertilizers and zeolite, the morphometric parameters of pollen grains were significantly enhanced.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Brassica napus, micromorphology, pollen grains, analytical scanning electron microscopy, agroecological experience

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.15

Nitrification inhibitors impact on nitrous oxide emission and ammonia volatilization: A sustainable measure toward a hygienic environment

A. NAWAZ, M.A. MAQSOOD, M.H. ZIA, M.I. AWAN, N. BORDOLOI, A. SHOUKAT, A. FAROOQ, N. RASHEED, M.I. ASHRAF, I. SALEEM, and S. EHSAN

SUMMARY

Nitrogen (N) application to agricultural fields warrants curtailing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and ammonia (NH3) volatilization for improved use efficiency with a less environmental footprint of N. As a means of mitigating N2O emissions, the efficacy of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) is well established but the efficacy of NIs in reducing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The study investigated the efficacy of neem oil, pomegranate leaf extract, and dicyandiamide (DCD) coating on prilled urea for reducing N2O emissions and the trend of NH3 release using static air closed chamber technique in an incubation room. The results showed that all NIs reduced N2O flux in the order of 37%–42% by DCD urea, 19%–34% by neem oil coated urea (NOCUs), and 11%–16% by pomegranate leaf extract coated urea (PLECU). However, over uncoated urea, 43%–54% NH3 flux was increased by DCD, 10%-32% by NOCUs, and significantly the least increase (5%–14%) in NH3 cumulative flux was shown by PLECU. Dicyandiamide significantly reduced N2O flux more than all other treatments, and PLECU showed the least increase in NH3emission when compared with other coated treatments. Hence, it is suggested that neem oil and pomegranate leaf extract could be used successfully not only for mitigating N2O emission, but also lessen environmental damages in association with managed N intense agriculture. Moreover, research focus on the increase in NH3 volatilization using DCD needs serious attention, especially in alkaline calcareous soils.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Coated urea, dicyandiamide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen inhibitors, neem oil, pomegranate

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.13

Taxonomic assessment of Curculigo orchioides USING matK and rbcL DNA barcodes

V.T. HO, T.Q. DINH, and T.H. NGUYEN

SUMMARY 

Curculigo orchioides is most commonly used as an imperative medicinal plant in Vietnam. The plant roots are mainly used to treat sexual dysfunction, back pain, arthritis, nephritis, jaundice, and infertility. Given the high market demand in the herbal market, C. orchioides traders commonly adulterate with other similar plants for illegitimate benefits. Maturase K (matK) and ribulose 1,5biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) DNA barcode loci are presently used to identify the blends and counterfeit the medicinal herbs, as well as, identify the propagating conservation material. Nevertheless, the identification accuracy is highly dependent on NCBI Genbank or Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). In the recent study, the efficiency of DNA barcode loci, matK and (rbcL) for the classification of C. orchioides populations, was investigated during 2020–2021. After examining 11 accessions of C. orchioides collected from different locations in Vietnam, the obtained results revealed that using NCBI database is more effective for classifying C. orchioides. In addition, the matK locus also showed higher identification power than (rbcL) . The obtained findings could be helpful in the trading management, conservation, and development of C. orchioides in Vietnam.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: BOLD, classification, Curculigo orchioides, DNA barcodes, matK, NCBI Genbank, rbcL

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.16

Genetic analysis for yield attributes in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccharata) under diverse environments

T. NADEEM, I.H. KHALIL, IKRAMULLAH, and S.A. JADOON

SUMMARY

The genotype and environment interaction (GEI) has always been a challenge as these are the main concerns of breeders during the selection of suitable parents for breeding programs. Very little information is available regarding the implication and importance of significant GE interaction, its source, and nature in plant breeding programs and on the net yield and resultant varieties. The study aimed to investigate the gene action and assess the performance of half-diallel populations using eight advanced sweet corn inbred lines for yield-related traits across two environmental conditions, i.e., Nowshera plain and Swat hilly areas, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Statistical analyses revealed significant variations among sweet corn genotypes for the studied traits from both locations. Hayman’s graphical analysis deduced that majority of traits like grains cob-1, 100-kernel weight, stover yield, and sweet corn grain yield showed over-dominance sort of inheritance at both Nowshera and Swat locations. The additive components were not more in magnitude than the dominance components at both the locations, however, these were lower than their counterparts’ (H1 and H2) components signifying the major function of a dominant gene action. The dominance effect was unidirectional for all the traits in the sub-tropical plain area, as well as, the temperate hilly area. Asymmetrical gene allocation was found due to their values being lower than 0.25 at both test locations. Broad-sense heritability was higher for most of the traits at both locations except for grains cob-1 and stover yield at Nowshera. It can be incidental that due to the dominant gene action and the least amount of narrow-sense heritability for most of the sweet corn yield-related traits, high yielding hybrids could be utilized for heterotic breeding.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Sweet corn, additive-dominance model, genetic analysis, Hayman’s half-diallel approach, heritability, gene action 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.3

Genetic diversity of field mustard (Brassica rapa L.) and their saturated and unsaturated fatty acids association

J. RAHMAN, F. SULTANA, K. FATIMA, M.M. HASAN, N. GAIN, M.S. HOSSAIN, A.K. CHOWDHURY, and A. RAHMAN

SUMMARY

The oilseed crop improvement for Brassica rapa L. (field mustard) is considered to be important in respect of yield production coupled with unsaturated fatty acids of the existing cultivars. Hence, the genetic diversity, and nutritional components of 14 B. rapa cultivars were evaluated based on their yield attributes and fatty acid profiles at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. These 14 B. rapa cultivars differed significantly and were grouped into five diversified clusters. The highest intra-cluster distance was found in cluster II (2.43), while the highest intercluster distance was found between clusters II and V (20.41). In the fatty acid profile, the maximum threshold acceptable level (<7%) of saturated fatty acids for human consumption was found in Sonali Sarisha and BARI Sarisha-14. The total monounsaturated fatty acids viz., oleic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid ranged from 62.74% in BARI Sarisha-15 to 69.51% in Sonali Sarisha. The highest oleic acid and eicosenoic acid were obtained from the local variety, Maghi (21.06%) and Improved Tori (9.08%). The highest essential linoleic and linolenic acids were found in BARI Sarisha-15 (17.10%) and Improved Tori (8.16%), respectively. However, the local cultivar Maghi, containing the highest oleic acid (21.06%) has the lowest erucic acid (35.53%). On the other hand, BARI Sarisha-14 contained the lowest oleic (17.22%) and the highest erucic (44.02%) acids. The negative and strong correlation also reinforced the reverse relationship between oleic and erucic acids. Similarly, both linoleic (-0.497) and linolenic (-0.443) acids also showed a negative correlation with erucic acid. As a whole, BARI Sarisha14, BARI Sarisha-15, Maghi, Sonali Sarisha, and Improved Tori could be selected as potential parents for a hybridization program to breed potential recombinant lines with higher oil content and healthier unsaturated oleic and linoleic fatty acids.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: Brassica rapa L., principal component analysis, fatty acids, erucic acid, correlation of fatty acids, oil stability index

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.4

Testcross performance for anthocyanin and antioxidant activity in the ear components of purple waxy corn lines

Kalapakdee W, Dermail A, Lertrat K, Sanitchon J, S Chankaewi, Lomthaisong K, Surihari B

Published: June 2020

The anthocyanin and phenolic yields and antioxidant activity of seven waxy corn genotypes, their F1 progenies, and hybrid checks grown during two growing seasons in 2018–2019 were assessed. The mode of gene action on the traits of interest was investigated, and promising lines with high anthocyanin in whole-ear components were identified. An overwhelming dominance genetic effect, high reciprocal cross effects, and low heritability for targeted traits in corn husks and cobs were revealed. Promising lines, namely NSX/DKA/PF for corn husk anthocyanin content, PF/AB and S6248/TB/KND//PF for corn cob anthocyanin content, and PF/AB and TB/KND//PF for corn kernel anthocyanin content, were identified.

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Kalapakdee W, Dermail A, Lertrat K, Sanitchon J, S Chankaewi, Lomthaisong K, Surihari B (2020). Testcross performance for anthocyanin and antioxidant activity in the ear components of purple waxy corn lines. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):158–176.

Diversity and utilization of bamboo (Bambusoideae) in five islands around Riau Province, Indonesia

Fitmawati, Saputri NA, Hartanto S, Resida E, Kholifah SN, Kapli H, Sofiyanti N, Wahibah NN, Khairijon

Published: June 2020

The diversity and functions of bamboo in peatlands were determined. Five genera, 17 species, and three varieties were identified and delineated into two groups. The most closely related species were Bambusa vulgaris Schard. Ex Wendl. var. striata and B. vulgaris Schard. Ex Wendl. var. vulgaris, whereas the most distantly related species were Gigantochloa kuring Widjaja and Gigantochloa atter (Kurz). Bamboo had 21 types of uses and is generally used as a soil-retaining plant and a clean-water filter. B. vulgaris Schard. Ex Wendl. var. vulgaris had multiple purposes and showed adaptability to all types of habitats. This species has the potential to be developed in peatland areas.

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Fitmawati, Saputri NA, Hartanto S, Resida E, Kholifah SN, Kapli H, Sofiyanti N, Wahibah NN, Khairijon (2020). Diversity and utilization of bamboo (Bambusoideae) in five islands around Riau Province, Indonesia. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):177–190

Starch accumulation of cassava genotypes grown in paddy fields during off-season

Nimlamai T, Banterng P, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N

Published: June 2020

Starch production by four different cassava genotypes grown in four different upper paddy fields during the off-season of rice was studied. Early storage root formation, rapid starch production rate, and high starch yield accumulation were identified as relevant traits top-yielding cassava genotypes in off-season rice paddy systems. CMR38-125-77 was identified as a satisfactory cassava genetic resource.

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Nimlamai T, Banterng P, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N (2020). Starch accumulation of cassava genotypes grown in paddy fields during off-season. SABRAO J Breed Genet 52(2):109–126.