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SABRAO JOURNAL of BREEDING and GENETICS pISSN 1029-7073; eISSN 2224-8978 Volume 54 Number 2 JUNE 2022 http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2

CONTENTS

Mustafa HSB, Mahmood T, Bashir H, Hasan E, Din AM, Habib S, Altaf M, Qamar R, Ghias M, Bashir MR, Anwar M, Zafar SA, Ahmad I, Yaqoob MU, Rashid F, Mand GA, Nawaz A, Salim J (2022). Genetic and physiological aspects of silique shattering in rapeseed and mustard. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 210-220. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.1

Islam MZ, Galib MAA, Akand MM, Lipi LF, Akter A, Matin MQI, Ivy NA (2022). Combining ability and heterotic studies in aromatic rice through line by tester analysis. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 221-235. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.2

Nadeem T, Khalil IH, Ikramullah, Jadoon SA (2022). Genetic analysis for yield attributes in sweet corn (Zea Mays L. Var. Saccharata) under diverse environments. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 236-248. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.3

Rahman J, Sultana F, Fatima K, Hasan MM, Gain N, Hossain MS, Chowdhury AK, Rahman A (2022). Genetic diversity of field mustard (Brassica rapa L.) and their saturated and unsaturated fatty acids association. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 249-266. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.4

Farid M, Djufri F, Yassi A, Anshori MF, Musa Y, Nasaruddin, Aqil M, Adzima AF, Iswoyo H, Jamil MH, Pati S (2022). Integrated corn cultivation technology based on morphology, drone imaging, and participatory plant breeding. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 267-279. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.5

Swelam DA, Salem AH, Hassan MA, Ali MMA (2022). Characterization of bread wheat segregating populations under optimum irrigation and water stress conditions. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 280-296. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.6

Sial NY, Faheem M, Sial MA, Roonjho AR, Muhammad F, Keerio AA, Adeel M, Ullah S, Habib Q, Afzal M (2022). Exotic wheat genotypes response to water-stress conditions. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 297-304. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.7

Ahmed MEAE, Abd Elaziem TM, Nower AA (2022). In vitro mutagenesis and propagation of Paulownia tomentosa (thunb) for salt tolerance. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 305-320. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.8

Amanov B, Muminov K, Samanov S, Abdiev F, Arslanov D, Tursunova N (2022). Cotton introgressive lines assessment through seed cotton yield and fiber quality characteristics. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 321-330. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.9

Khaled KAM, Sultan FM, Azzam CR (2022). Gamma-rays and microwave irradiation influence on guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba): I – markers assisted selection for responding to mutagenic agents. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 331-349. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.10

Billa AT, Lestari SS, Daryono BS, Subiastuti AS (2022). Bio-catharantin effects on phenotypic traits and chromosome number of shallots (Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum ‘Tajuk’). SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 350-358. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.11

Motyleva SM, Borisova AA, Kulikov IM, Tumaeva TA (2022). Comparative biochemical composition of the sweet cherry fruits. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 359-375. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.12

Nawaz A, Maqsood MA, Zia MH, Awan MI, Bordoloi N, Shoukat A, Farooq A, Rasheed N, Ashraf MI, Saleem I, Ehsan S (2022). Nitrification inhibitors impact on nitrous oxide emission and ammonia volatilization: a sustainable measure toward a hygienic environment. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 376-388. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.13

Kareem KhA, Alojany ZOO, Al-Janabi ASA (2022). Marine algae extracts, and nano fertilizer with zinc and copper effects on growth, and macro- and micronutrients composition of apple trees. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 389-396. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.14 3

Zubkova T , Motyleva S, Vinogradov D, Gulidova V, Dubrovina O (2022). Organic fertilizer and natural zeolite effects on morphometric traits of Brassica napus L. pollen grains. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 397- 406. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.15

Ho VT, Dinh TQ, Nguyen TH (2022). Taxonomic assessment of Curculigo orchioides using matK and rbcL DNA barcodes. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 407-415. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.16

Abed IA, Marzoog A., Addaheri AMS, Al-IssawI MH (2022). Isolation and diagnosis of cadmium-resistant bacteria and its potential phytoremediation with the broad bean plant. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 416-425. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.17

Tetyannikov NV, Motyleva SM, Gins MS, Кozak NV, Panischeva DV, Mertvischeva ME, Kаbashnikova LF, Domanskaya IN, Pilipovich TS (2022). Drought effects on mineral composition of the leaves and seeds of Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 426-436. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.18

Mangrio N, Mari N, Mangrio GS, Soomro ZA, Simair AA, Kumar B (2022). Effect of planting and bud placement position on agronomical and physiological traits of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 437-446. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.19

Nemeata Alla HEA, Helmy SAM (2022). Response of sugar beet to sandy soil amended by zeolite and potassium sulfate fertilization. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 447-457. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.20

Saimova RU, Batyrova KI, Bekenova NA, Kauynbaeva E, Esimov BK (2022). Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in different agroecosystems of Southeast Kazakhstan. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 54(2): 458-468. http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.21

Cotton introgressive lines assessment through seed cotton yield and fiber quality characteristics

B. AMANOV, K. MUMINOV, S. SAMANOV, F. ABDIEV, D. ARSLANOV, and N. TURSUNOVA

The conducted study, with focus on the earliness and opening rate of bolls, and other economic traits of introgressive cotton lines, was carried out from 2017 to 2019 at the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology, and Genetics and Evolution Biology Department, in Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Overall, the introgressive cotton lines were found to ripen two to 13 days earlier than a standard cotton cultivar C-6524. Particularly, in line L-РСМ, the vegetation period took 109 days and matured 12.3 days earlier than a standard cultivar check. According to the boll weight, the selected cotton lines were identified to have the best performance, as well as, good germination ability of seeds. The cotton line, Т-138, was found highly resistant to strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum pathogenic fungi, while the lines, L-РСМ and L-138, had 80% to 100% resistance to Verticillium dahliaе fungi. The cotton lines, L-РСМ and L-141, were not infected with Fusarium solani fungi. The cluster analysis revealed that according to the economic traits, the first cluster included lines L-24 and L-138 and were found to be closely related to each other. The line, LРСМ, was included in the third cluster, and it was found that this cotton line was among the cultivars with the best performance for all the valuable economic traits. The comparative analysis of cotton lines resulted in a creation of a new medium-fiber cotton cultivar “Niso,” with the productivity of 3,830 to 5,650 kg ha-1, boll weight of 6.0 to 6.7 g, boll opening at 109.0 to 112.0 days, type IV fiber, 1000seed weight of 118.0 to 120.0 g, fiber percentage ranging from 36.9% to 41.4%, fiber length at 34.0 to 35.9 mm, and relative tensile strength (34.6 cN/tex). Cotton lines obtained on the basis of intergenomic introgression methods were included in the leading “Cotton gene pool” (Reference of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan №4/1255-2473 dated November 12, 2020). These introgressive cotton lines made it possible to enrich the collection of cotton, to evaluate wild cotton species, and to form a system of information and analysis of the electronic database of adaptable stress factors and genetically enriched samples.

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Keywords: Cotton, introgressive lines, genome, cultivars, earliness, bolls, boll weight, fiber yield, fiber length, and strength

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.9

Response of sugar beet to sandy soil amended by zeolite and potassium sulfate fertilization

H.E.A. NEMEATA ALLA and S.A.M. HELMY

SUMMARY

Two field experiments were carried out on a private farm at Wadi El-Natrun (latitude of 30.48° N and longitude of 30.50° E), Beheira Governorate, Egypt, in the 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 seasons, to find out the effect of adding zeolite as a soil conditioner and potassium fertilizer on growth, yield, and quality of sugar beet crop (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera) grown in sandy soil conditions. The present work included 12 treatments, which were the combinations of four zeolite levels (Zero, 476, 952, and 1,428 kg ha-1), and three levels of potassium in the form of potassium sulfate (119, 178.5, and 238 kg K2.SO4 ha-1), which were added as a soil application. The treatments were arranged in a complete block design in a split plot with four replications. The results showed that higher values of the photosynthetic pigments, root diameter, fresh and foliage weights plant-1, as well as, sucrose and extracted sugar percentages, quality index, yields of the root, top, and sugar ha-1, were obtained by adding 1,428 kg zeolite, compared with the other levels of zeolite, in both seasons. However, sodium, alpha-amino N contents in the root, and sugar lost to molasses% were insignificantly affected by zeolite rates in both seasons. Application of 238 kg K2.SO4 ha-1significantly resulted in the highest values of photosynthetic pigments, root dimensions, sucrose%, and root potassium content. In addition, extracted sugar %, quality index, root, top, and sugar yields ha-1 were increased compared with the other lower K-sulphate levels in both seasons. On the contrary, sugar lost to molasses% was insignificantly affected by applied potassium sulfate in both seasons. The maximum values of root diameter, fresh weight, yields of root and top ha-1 in both seasons, and also sugar yield in the second season were produced from the interaction between applying 1,428 kg zeolite and 238 kg potassium sulfate ha1.

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Date published: June 2022

Keywords: potassium sulphate, sandy soil, sugar beet, zeolite 

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.2.20

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Agronomic responses of diverse bread wheat genotypes to phosphorus levels and nitrogen forms in a semiarid environment

Swailam MA, Mowafy SAE, El-Naggar NZA, Mansour E

SUMMARY

Increasing wheat production has become an urgent requirement to cope with rapid population growth and abrupt climate change. The management of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important factors for sustaining and increasing wheat production, particularly in semiarid environments. This 2-year field study, which aimed to investigate the effect of P levels (0, 35, and 70 kg P2O5 ha−1) and N forms (urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate) on the yield attributes of three diverse highyielding commercial wheat cultivars (‘Shandawel-1’, ‘Sids-14’, and ‘Sakha-95’), was carried out at Om-Elzain Village, Zagazig, Egypt. The results indicated that increasing P levels was accompanied by a substantial increase in all evaluated traits, except spike length, and that high P level (70 kg P2O5 ha−1) was superior. Considerable genetic variation was detected among the evaluated cultivars for all studied traits. Cultivar ‘Sakha-95’, followed by ‘Sids14’, presented the most vigorous growth and enhancements in most yield components, grain yield, and biological yield. Furthermore, ‘Sakha-95’ recorded the highest agronomic P use efficiency, followed by cultivar ‘Sids-14’. N forms did not significantly affect all of the tested traits except plant height, spike number m−2, and 1000-grain weight, during both seasons. Ammonium-containing fertilizer (ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate) resulted in the highest values for these traits when compared with urea. Accordingly, ‘Sakha-95’ and ‘Sids-14’ are recommended for commercial use under high P levels. N forms had a marginally substantial effect on grain yield and its attributes.

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Keywords: Phosphorus levels, nitrogen forms, wheat cultivars, grain yield and its attributes, agronomic phosphorus use efficiency, principal component analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.4

Molecular characterization and n use efficiency of LeAlaAT ‘Mekongga’ transgenic rice lines


Yulita DS, Purwoko BS, Sisharmini A, Apriana A, Santoso TJ, Trijatmiko KR, Sukma D

SUMMARY

Genetic engineering is one of the strategies for developing nitrogen (N)-use-efficient rice (Oryza sativa) varieties. One gene that plays an indirect role in N metabolism is alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). It can efficiently increase N content and crop yield. In a previous study, the tomato AlaAT gene (LeAlaAT) was successfully isolated and introduced into ‘Mekongga’ rice. The present research was conducted during 2018 and 2019 at the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development (ICABIOGRAD), Bogor, Indonesia. The objectives of the present study were to perform the molecular characterization of LeAlaAT ‘Mekongga’ rice lines on the basis of the hpt marker gene, the direct PCR of the LeAlaAT fragment, and the phenotypic evaluation of the selected LeAlaAT T1 ‘Mekongga’ rice lines in response to different N fertilizer rates (0 kg ha−1 [control] and 60, 90, and 120 kg ha−1). This research involved three activities, namely (1) Southern blot analysis, (2) direct PCR, and (3) N use efficiency (NUE) test of ‘Mekongga’ transgenic lines. Southern blot analysis revealed that in T0 transgenic lines, the copy number of the hpt marker gene varied from 1 to 3. Direct PCR confirmed the presence of the AlaAT fragment in the T1 generation of five ‘Mekongga’ transgenic lines. The five transgenic lines showed high panicle number, biomass weight, shoot dry weight, and total grain weight under 120 kg ha−1 nitrogen. The high agronomical NUE of transgenic lines under 120 kg ha−1 N implied that the transgenic rice lines have the potential for efficient N use at a certain minimum level of N (120 kg ha−1 of nitrogen) and should be further evaluated at high N levels.

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Keyword: Ma Alanine aminotransferase, LeAlaAT transgenic rice lines, Mekongga, Southern blot, direct PCR, N use efficiency

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.14

Assessment of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) accessions for pollen sources in natural crossing by using microsatellites

Azka NA, Taryono, Wulandari RA

SUMMARY

Tea (Camellia sinensis L. [O.] Kuntze) is a highly cross-pollinated and self-incompatible plant. Seeds can be harvested from specific individual mother plants in polyclonal tea gardens. Whether the pollen donor plays an important role in seed formation remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the male parents of 72 natural hybridized progenies (F1) from one female parent on the basis of a putative specific allele by using simplesequence repeat (SSR) markers and the exclusion-likelihood method with Cervus 3.0 software. The genetic material, which comprised seven accessions of C. sinensis L., was acquired from Assamica planted in the Kayulandak polyclonal seed garden of the Pagilaran tea plantation in Batang District, Central Java, Indonesia, and was studied during 2019 and 2020. The genotype PGL-15 was used as the female parent, whereas the six candidate genotypes PGL-10, GMB-9, GMB-7, TPS-93, GMB-11, and TRI 2025 were used as the male parents. In this study, 13 SSR loci were used to identify the male parents of the F1 progenies obtained through natural hybridization between one female and six male tea accessions. Results indicated that the exclusion-likelihood method, which correctly predicted 100% of the male parents, was more effective than the putative specific allele approach, which correctly predicted only 34.72% of the male parents in the 72 hybridized F1 progenies of tea plants.

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Keywords: Camellia sinensis L., natural pollination, SSR markers, paternity analysis, putative specific allele, exclusion-likelihood method

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.10

Rice backcross population assessment for iron tolerance through phenotypic and genotypic analyses

Tam VT, vy LT, Huu NT, Ha PTT

SUMMARY

Iron toxicity has become a serious issue affecting rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in many irrigated lowland areas. The selection of Fe2+-tolerant rice cultivars under iron toxicity conditions and the identification of molecular markers are good approaches to obtaining tangible results. This study aimed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that were associated with iron tolerance traits in a rice backcross population. A total of 117 seedlings from the backcross (BC3F2) of ‘OM6830’/‘AS996’//‘AS996’ were phenotyped at the 4-week-seedling stage at Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The rice population was screened in Yoshida nutrient medium supplemented with FeCl2 at a concentration of 150 mg L−1 under greenhouse conditions. Phenotypic analysis was conducted by scoring two parameters, namely, root length and leaf bronzing. Genotypic analysis was carried out on the BC3F2 population by using four markers, i.e., RM6, RM240, RM252, and RM451, for association analysis with iron tolerance. A total of 23 BC3F2 lines were selected on the basis of their higher tolerance (score 1) for Fe2+ compared with the tolerant parental line ‘AS996’. The markers RM6 and RM240 were highly polymorphic and identified different Fe2+-tolerant lines in the BC3F2 population. Among the BC3F3 progeny derived from the selected 23 BC3F2 lines, BC3F3-7 was identified as the most Fe2+-tolerant line. BC3F3-15 was also found to be Fe2+ tolerant. Both lines showed good development capability and provided high yields under stress conditions. These tolerant BC3F3 lines could be further screened with additional SSR markers in future breeding programs aiming to increase rice production in iron-contaminated areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

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Keywords: Backcrosses, iron toxicity, phenotypic and genotypic traits, screening, SSR markers, genetic analysis, Oryza sativa L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.7

Analysis of the genetic diversity of Phalaenopsis orchids with single nucleotide polymorphisms and snap markers derived from the Pto gene

Sukma D, Elina J, Raynalta E, Aisyah SI, Aziz SA, Sudarsono, Chan MT

SUMMARY

The Pto gene is a plant gene that has been reported to be involved in resistance to bacterial pathogens. A partial genomic sequence corresponding to Pto (~449 bp) was isolated from 16 species and four hybrids of Phalaenopsis during 2017 at the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia. Multiple sequence analysis was performed to find putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and design the corresponding single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism (SNAP) markers, which were in turn used to estimate the genetic diversity of 25 Phalaenopsis species. In total, 20 SNPs, of which 14 were nonsynonymous, were identified from the partial Pto sequences. Eighteen SNAP primers were then developed based on these 14 nonsynonymous and four synonymous SNPs. Validation results showed that 15 SNAP primers showed a polymorphism information content exceeding 0.3, suggesting the existence of more than two alleles for this locus. Upon their use, the SNAP markers described 86% of all interspecies variability. The Pto 52, Pto 349, Pto 229, and Pto 380 SNAP markers were very informative in the determination of genetic diversity. Notably, the existence of these nonsynonymous SNPs implied the possibility of functional changes within the amino acid sequence of the putative PTO protein. Thus, the resulting differences in the activity of the PTO protein may be used to breed tolerance to pathogen infection. Further work may be required to establish a functional link between tolerance to pathogens and the presence of Pto-SNAP markers in Phalaenopsis properly.

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Keywords: Phalaenopsis, moth orchid, diversity, single nucleotide polymorphism, Pto, bacterial resistance

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.6

Genotype by environment interaction analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield under rainfed conditions in Zambia

Tembo B

SUMMARY

Understanding genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is important for crop improvement because it aids in the recommendation of cultivars and the identification of appropriate production environments. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of GEI for the grain yield of wheat grown under rain-fed conditions in Zambia by using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The study was conducted in 2015/16 at Mutanda Research Station, Mt. Makulu Research Station and Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART) in Chibombo. During2016/17, the experiment was performed at Mpongwe, Mt. Makulu Research Station and GART Chibombo, Zambia. Fifty-five rain-fed wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield in a 5 × 11 alpha lattice design with two replications. Results revealed the presence of significant variation in yield across genotypes, environments, and GEI indicating the differential performance of genotypes across environments. The variance due to the effect of environments was higher than the variances due to genotypes and GEI. The variances ascribed to environments, genotypes, and GEI accounted for 45.79%, 12.96%, and 22.56% of the total variation, respectively. These results indicated that in rain-fed wheat genotypes under study, grain yield was more controlled by the environment than by genetics. AMMI biplot analysis demonstrated that E2 was the main contributor to the GEI given that it was located farthest from the origin. Furthermore, E2 was unstable yet recorded the highest yield. Genotype G47 contributed highly to the GEI sum of squares considering that it was also located far from the origin. Genotypes G12 and G18 were relatively stable because they were situated close to the origin. Their position indicated that they had minimal interaction with the environment. Genotype 47 was the highest-yielding genotype but was unstable, whereas G34 was the lowest-yielding genotype and was unstable.

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Keywords: Genotype–environment interaction, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis, genetics, stability, Triticum aestivum L.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.5

Biochemical and cytological features of onion bulbs and leaves collected from various ecogeographical origins

Nemtinov VI, Kostanchuk YN, Pashtetskiy VS, Motyleva SM, Bokhan AI, Caruso G, Katskaya AG, Timasheva LA, Pekhova OA


SUMMARY

Allium cepa L. genotypes with different ecogeographical origins revealed the highest nutritional values when grown in Crimea, Russia. However, their environmental adaptation should be further investigated. This research was performed during 2016–17 to evaluate the qualitative, antioxidant, and mineral composition characteristics of 15 onion genotypes, of which four originated from the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution, Research Institute of Agriculture, Crimea, Russia. Sweet onion genotypes exhibited high ascorbic acid contents of 11.8–27.3 mg/100 g. However, some genotypes had a narrow range of ascorbic acid content (11.8–21.1 mg/100 g) due to their different ecogeographical origins and proved to be appropriate for industrial processing because of their spicy taste. Intensely colored bulbs had a high content of polyphenols (anthocyanins), which are known to have a positive influence on human health. Electronic microscopic assays revealed the morphological characteristics of A. cepa L. genotype leaves and demonstrated the differences in epidermal structure and adaptability potential. The 12 main mineral macro- and microelements with the highest contents in onion leaves were analyzed. The hyperaccumulator genotype with the highest leaf macro- and microelement content could be used to address mineral element deficiencies in humans. In onion genotype leaves, the contents of the mineral elements followed the order of Zn > Fe > Si > Na > Р > Cl > Mo > Mg > S > Ca > Cu > K. The biochemical analysis of 13 onion cultivars showed that the majority exceeded the standard values of dry matter and sugars (mono- and disaccharides) by 13% and 46%, 11% and 48%, and 36% and 150%. In onion genotypes, leaf surface microstructure was specific, and the largest stomata corresponded to the most productive cultivars.

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Date Published: December 2021

Keywords: Onion, bulb (Allium cepa L.), ascorbic acid, leaves, electronic microscopy scanning, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, mineral elements

DOI: https://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2021.53.4.1