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Genetic diversity of maize inbred lines based on morphological traits and its association with heterosis

A.M.M. AL-NAGGAR, A.M. SOLIMAN, M.H. HUSSIEN, and A.M.H. MOHAMED

SUMMARY

In any breeding program, the creation of high-yielding maize hybrids with the best possible heterosis expression depends on the genetic diversity of the parental inbred lines. This study aimed to quantify the genetic diversity of eight inbred lines of maize using morphological features and determine the relationship between heterosis in grain yield per hectare and distance matrices of morphological variables. The principal component analysis (PCA) determined the morphological genetic diversity among the eight inbred lines based on 22 variables. The study assessed heterosis in their diallel crossings in a two-year field experiment utilizing a randomized complete block design with three replications. The dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients among the eight maize inbred lines ranged from 0.08 (between L21 and L28) to 0.69 (between L21 and IL80), with an average of 0.38. The results revealed that dissimilarity values based on morphological traits showed a low, positive, and nonsignificant relationship with mid-parent heterosis, better-parent heterosis, and mean grain yield ha-1. To fully comprehend the genetic diversity of maize inbred lines, an extensive analysis of a vast collection of inbred lines from various populations using a variety of morphological traits is necessary.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.11

Genetic variability in weedy rice biotypes found in direct-seeded rice areas in the Philippines

L.M. JULIANO, X.G.I. CAGUIAT, E.V. EVANGELISTA, E.C. MARTIN, and A.H.M. RAMIREZ

Weedy rice can severely impact rice production through yield reduction because of its competitive ability to reduce growth resources for cultivated rice. The characteristic weedy traits have made weedy rice very challenging to manage as they have the same agro-morphological characteristics with cultivated rice. The study examined the relationships between selected cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, weedy rice biotypes, and wild rice collected from different locations in the Philippines, using simple sequence repeat markers. Cluster analysis, using UPGMA, enabled the genetic differentiation and relationships examination of the test materials. Subgroups of 13 with at least two biotypes formed 100% similarity based on post-harvest data, with the cultivated rice cultivars forming one subgroup. With polymorphic SSR markers, five major clusters range from three (group I) to 62 biotypes (group III). There was 100% similarity observed for 15 subgroups ranging from two to 10 biotypes. The wild rice cultivars formed species-specific groupings. Subgroups with 100% similarity came from the same province; likewise, one with 100% similarity came from both Iloilo and Batangas; and still another from cultivated rice cultivar and weedy rice biotype from Pangasinan. The possible relationships of weedy rice biotypes with wild rice relatives (>65% similarity) include two biotypes related to Oryza minuta, one for O. meyeriana, and 22 biotypes for O. rufipogon. Concerning cultivated rice cultivars, high similarity (>80%) was observed in 22 biotypes closely related to PSB Rc 82, 13 biotypes to NSIC Rc 222, six to NSIC Rc 160, three biotypes each to NSIC Rc 215, NSIC Rc 152, NSIC Rc 64, NSIC Rc 18, and NSIC Rc 10, and one biotype each to IR64 and NSIC Rc 14.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.10

Groundnut genotypes’ diversity assessment for yield and oil quality traits through multivariate analysis

S. ALI, R. AHMAD, M.F. HASSAN, D. IBRAR, M.S. IQBAL, M.S. NAVEED, M. ARSALAN, A. REHMAN, and T. HUSSAIN

SUMMARY

Genetic variability is essential in plant breeding for crop adaptation in a specific environment, enhancing yield potential, creating resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, improving quality attributes, and most importantly, selecting desirable and better parents for hybridization programs. The study was designed to ascertain the genotypic diversity of 54 accessions of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). The study evaluated these accessions/genotypes for 13 different traits (morphological, yield, and oil quality) under the rainfed climate of Pakistan. Significant differences were observed for all studied traits. Likewise, significant difference in the percent coefficient of variability (CV%) was also found for these traits. The research included classifying the genotypes further into six different clusters using the Ward method. Principal component analysis was performed that showed variability in components for different traits. The first five principal components (PCs) showed an eigenvalue of more than one that contributed about 71.83% of the total observed variation. Major characters accounted for by PC1 included pod weight per plant, grain weight per plant, and the number of pods per plant. PC2 positively contributed to oleic acid and shelling percentage, PC3 contributed positively to dry pod yield, plant height, and days to flower initiation, and PC4 contributed for days to 50% flowering, the number of pods per plant, and dry pod yield. These data on genotypic diversity for studied traits in the recent investigation will help breed new groundnut lines to strengthen germplasm sources for cultivar development in rainfed areas of Pakistan.

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Date of publication: September 2022

Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, cluster analysis, divergence, groundnut, oleic acid, PCA

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.9

In silico profiling of proline biosynthesis and degradation related genes during fruit development of tomato

J.M. AL-KHAYRI, A.A.H. ABDEL LATEF, H.S.A. TAHA, A.S. ELDOMIATY, M.A. ABD-ELFATTAH, A.A. REZK, W.F. SHEHATA, M.I. ALMAGHASLA, T.A. SHALABY, M.N. SATTAR, M.F. AWAD, and A.A. HASSANIN

SUMMARY

Advancements in DNA sequencing technologies with decreasing costs have sparked the generation of larger gene expression datasets generated at an accelerating rate. The study aimed to visualize the spatiotemporal profiles of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genes involved in L-proline biosynthesis and to show their potential functions. Increasing L-proline accumulation, through upregulation and downregulation of genes responsible for L-proline biosynthesis and degradation, plays an essential role in tomato plants suffering abiotic and biotic stress. Understanding the possible mechanism of L-proline biosynthesis and degradation needs an urgent study of the expression pattern and function of genes involved in these physiological processes. The study identified the genes governing the L-proline biosynthesis and degradation pathways and their expression profiles in 10 stages of tomato fruit development using the Tomato Expression Atlas (TEA) bioinformatic tool. The analysis showed that L-proline biosynthesis resulted from three pathways governed by six genes, while its degradation occurred in two pathways managed by three genes. The bioinformatics analysis also showed the expression of proline synthesis/degradation-related genes in fruit parts at various developmental stages. However, proline degradation-related genes showed higher expression levels than biosynthesis-related genes. This study sheds light on a recent bioinformatics tool, which will pave the way to detect early plant performance by analyzing the expression profiles of genes.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Tomato, bioinformatics, L-proline accumulation genes, gene expression, proline biosynthesis genes, salinity, drought

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.8

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Heritability, genetic gain, and path coefficient analyses in black gram at Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

S. JAMIL, M. ILYAS, M.Z. KHAN, S.I. AWAN, S. REHMAN, S. SHAFIQUE, S. HAFEEZ, M. RIAZ, H.M. AHMAD, A. TAMKEEN, M.A. GHAFFAR, and M.M. KHAN

SUMMARY

Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a principal pulse crop worldwide. The research aimed to screen the genetic diversity among 10 black gram genotypes using biometrical tools, such as, genotypic and phenotypic correlation, path coefficient analysis, and heritability and genetic gain. The highest genotypic and phenotypic variability resulted from pods per plant, plant height, primary branches, and seeds per pod. The study recorded very low estimated heritability for all the studied traits. The correlation coefficient indicated that seed yield per plant showed a positive and significant correlation with pods per plant and pod length, indicating that further use of these characteristics can improve the black gram yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed a positive and direct effect on seed yield per plant with plant height, days to 50% flowering, primary branches, branch length, pod per plant, and seeds per pod. These traits proved relevant for the direct selection criteria and future breeding programs. The investigation results can be very helpful in selecting the black gram’s suitable genotypes with appropriate yield for cultivation in rainfed conditions of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Black gram (Vigna mungo L.), genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variability, heritability, genetic gain, path coefficient analysis

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.7

Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense. L) lines assessment for drought tolerance in Uzbekistan

J. SHAVKIEV, S. NABIEV, A. AZIMOV, N. CHORSHANBIEV , and K.H. NURMETOV

SUMMARY

Globally, increasing water and energy demand is expected to reach 6.9 trillion cubic meters by 2030, exceeding 40% of the available water supplies. Climate change and rising temperatures caused water shortages due to lesser and irregular rainfalls, leading to lower production of crops. The research to assess drought tolerance of Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense. L) lines in Uzbekistan revealed the line, T-450 as the most promising for drought environments. The research, in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications with a factorial arrangement and two irrigation regimes (non-stress and water stress at the seedling stage), was conducted at the experimental field of the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology, District Zangi-Ota, Tashkent Region, Uzbekistan. Nine Pima cotton lines, i.e., Сурхон-14 (control cultivar), Т-1, Т-5440, Т-2006, Т-10, Т-167, Т-5445, Т-450, and Т-663 with diverse agronomic characters, were selected for their potential yield during 2019, 2020, and 2021 cropping seasons under two different environments (optimal and water deficit condition). Drought indices revealed significant differences among lines, except the golden mean (GM). Results in the ranking method indicate that among the drought tolerance indices, mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), mean relative performance (MRP), relative efficiency index (REI), and relative drought index (RDY), show the most suitable indicators because of their high correlation with seed cotton yield. Cluster analysis and threedimensional plots showed the cotton inbred lines with the highest tolerance to drought under both irrigation conditions. The first three principal components (PCs) explained 67.54% of total variation and the PC1 can be nominated as a potentially stable yield. The biplot diagram based on PCs and drought tolerance indices showed that MP, GMP, STI, MRP, REI, and YI were the best indices for screening the tolerant cotton inbred lines, such as, T-450.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Pima cotton lines, non-stress and water stress, cluster analysis, principal component and biplot analyses, correlation, seed cotton yield

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.6

Drought stress effects on resistant gene expression, growth, and yield traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

A.N. FARHOOD, M.Y. MERHIJ, and Z.H. AL-FATLAWI

SUMMARY

The study comprised two experiments that were carried out for two consecutive years (2019–2020 and 2020–2021) at the Agricultural Research Station, Babil Governorate, Iraq. In the first experiment, seven wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, viz., Iraq, Ezz, Abba-99, Furat, Sham-6, N-70, and Tamoz, were studied for most drought- tolerant genes in 2019–2020. During this year, three droughttolerant wheat cultivars, i.e., Iraq, Tamoz, and Abba-99, were selected having the most droughttolerant genes. In the second experiment, the three selected drought-tolerant wheat cultivars under three different drought stress conditions (D-1, D-2, and D-3) were studied during 2020–2021 in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications using a split-plot arrangement. The study aimed to determine the impact of drought effects on the expression of drought-resistant genes, growth, and yield traits in wheat. The results showed that wheat cultivars differed in their possession of drought-resistant genes (ABC4, GPAT, GBSS1, and umc1283), and the bands appeared in cultivars, Iraq, Tamoz, and Abba-99, while the rest of the four cultivars had lost one or two genes. Cultivar Iraq was distinguished as the most drought-tolerant genotypes, by having an increased relative expression of genes, ABC4 and GPAT, compared with other cultivars. The D-3 – drought stress condition caused a significant reduction in the biological and grain yield, and harvest index, with a decrease of 38.85%, 12.60%, and 29.83%, respectively. Cultivar Iraq was the least affected for plant height, flag leaf area, tillers meter2, biological and grain yield, and harvest index when increasing drought severity, and these traits decreased by 16.96%, 24.08%, 44.17%, 28.08%, 15.10%, and 15.29%, respectively. Results authenticated wheat cultivars differed in the expression of drought-resistant genes, and drought resistance is largely controlled by genes.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), drought stress, drought-resistant genes, genes expression, growth traits, grain yield, and related traits

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.5

Genetic diversity of Bak-kala (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. SM.) in Aceh Province, Indonesia

SAUDAH, ZUMAIDAR, DARUSMAN, FITMAWATI, D.I. ROSLIM , E. JULIANTARI, ERNILASARI, and K. WALIL

SUMMARY

Torch ginger – bak-kala (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.SM.) already has been proven an effective traditional medicine by tribes in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Solid primary evidence for the torch ginger, bak-kala’s medicinal properties include the healing effects experienced by the traditional tribes in Aceh, when treated for illnesses, such as, cough, fever, and sprains. Likewise, it has been proven to be a use for food ingredients, i.e., vegetables and spices to enhance the taste of food. Much of the available documented information focused on its biochemical and pharmacological aspects. Even though the utilization of bak-kala resources is mainly at the level of diversity, there is no information on its genetic diversity in Aceh. The high intensity of bak-kala utilization is not simultaneous with information on its genetic diversity. On the other hand, many uses of bak-kala are specific for certain accessions with particular benefits. The study aimed to create a classification system for bak-kala variations based on inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers and to provide information on the genetic diversity of bak-kala in Aceh Province. The 35 accessions were divided into eight populations based on the geographical locations from which they were collected. Data were recorded and analyzed using 10 ISSR primers with 77 total bands. The molecular characters divided the accessions into four major groups. As revealed by expected heterozygosity (He), genetic variability among the population showed that the Simeulu population possessed a greater level of variability than other populations. The results of the analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) showed that the genetic variation within the population was higher (60%) than the genetic variation among populations (40%). The studies can be used to plan conservation strategies, optimal utilization of the species, and crop improvement programs in the future.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: Bak-kala (Etlingera elatior), diversity, genetic variability, germplasm, ISSR markers, population structure

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.4

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Genetic analysis and heterotic studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) hybrids for fruit yield and its related traits.

A. JAVED, N.N. NAWAB, S. GOHAR, A. AKRAM, K. JAVED, M. SARWAR, M.I. TABASSUM, N. AHMAD, and A.R. MALLHI

A study was conducted to determine the types of gene action of different yield-related traits in tomato and the combining ability in four advanced lines. The heterotic response in tomato hybrids was also assessed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among all the traits. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all chosen traits were computed using Griffing’s approach of diallel. Combining ability revealed the additive and non-additive genetic effects for all selected traits of advanced lines. T-1360 was found as a good general combiner for the number of cluster plant-1, average fruit weight, number of flowers cluster-1, fruit length, number of fruit cluster-1, and yield. The variance of the GCA to SCA ratio was found less than 0.5 for each trait, which confirmed the presence of non-additive gene action. The results revealed higher magnitudes of phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) than the genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV). The high magnitudes of heritability (72% to 92%) and genetic advance (36.63% to 139.72%) were found for the number of cluster plant-1, average fruit weight (g), the number of fruits cluster-1, and yield. Among all crosses, the cross ST-100 × T-1360 showed maximum positive heterosis over the mid parent (566.6%) and the better parent (455.5%). The identified tomato genotypes can be used further in different tomato breeding programs to improve fruit yield and other yield-related traits.

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Date published: September 2022

Keywords: GCA and SCA, heritability, heterosis, Solanum lycopersicum L.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.3

Genetic analysis of upland rice F4 populations (Sileso × Ciherang) for phenological and yield related traits

M. SYAHRIL, SYUKRI, D.S. SIREGAR, and MURDIANI

SUMMARY

Climate change increases the drought-affected areas, which challenge the breeders to develop adaptive and drought-tolerant rice cultivars. The study aimed to determine heritability, and gene action controlling of various traits in upland rice F4 populations derived from the cross, Sileso (high yielding and drought tolerant) × Ciherang (early maturing), and to obtain high-yielding and earlymaturing rice lines. The upland rice F4 populations, along with parental and check cultivars, were planted in augmented design from July to November 2021 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Samudra University, Langsa, Indonesia. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the check cultivars for the traits, such as, panicle length, productive tillers, filled grains per panicle, and grain yield per plant. The F4 population families revealed significant differences for the maturity, filled grain per panicle, and grain yield per plant, which confirmed greater genetic diversity, and proved potential to produce the best lines. The check vs. family interactions also exhibited significant differences for all the characters. Results revealed high heritability for the traits, i.e., maturity, filled grain per panicle, and grain yield per plant. The inheritance of all the characters was controlled by the additive gene action. Inheritance of the majority of the traits was polygenic except plant height and productive tillers. The selected and promising upland rice F4 populations revealed reduced plant height, maturity, and increased yield per plant compared with its rice parental cultivar ‘Sileso’.

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Date Published: September 2022

Keywords: Upland rice, drought tolerance, heritability, gene action

DOI: http://doi.org/10.54910/sabrao2022.54.3.2